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    The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from the grasp of the Spanish colony occurred on June 12, 1898. It was proclaimed in Cavite and was done through the announcement in public of the Act of declaration independence. On that day Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary forces was given the sovereignty of the country.     The Declaration of Independence by Philippines was not an easy task for the Filipinos. It was a 3 year revolution which began in the year 1896. In those times the Spanish had sealed an agreement with the supporters of the revolution to send Emilio Aguinaldo to Hong Kong as an exile. But the Spanish-American war broke out where the Asiatic Squadron which belonged to the US NAVY sailed to Manila Bay from Hongkong. The fleet was led by Commodore George Dewey. Eventually, they defeated the Spanish through the help of the United States. The victory was declared on May 1, 1898 after the Battle of Manila Bay has decided the defeat of the Spanish colonizers. On the same month Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Philippines escorted by the U.S. Navy.     The Proclamation ceremony occurred in the afternoon and at the familial house of the Aguinaldo family. Their house was located 30km South from Manila. In the ceremony the Philippine flag was spread out. The national flag was originally made from Hong Kong. The unfurling of the flag was then followed by the Marcha Filipina Magdalo being performed. It became the national anthem of the country and is now called Lupang Hinirang. San Francisco de Malabon was the name of the marching band which performed the anthem. It was all written by Julian Felipe.     Meanwhile, it was Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who wrote, prepared and read the Act of the Declaration of Independence. He composed it and read it all in Spanish. About a hundred people signed the Declaration as witnesses to the proclamation. One of them was an American officer who also observed the ceremony. But later on the declaration was modified. Apolinario Mabini insisted upon it and was acted upon by the Malolos congress. They objected for the Philippines to be held under the influence of the United States in return for protection.     Unfortunately the proclamation had to go through rough times. It was not recognized by the U.S. and Spain. But at the defeat of the Spanish to the Americans, Philippines was yielded to the US as part of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As a retaliation, the treaty was not recognized by the Philippine Revolutionary Government. This resulted in what is known as the Philippine-American war. But the Philippines lost to the U.S. This happened when the U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was persuaded then to sign and agree to hand over the sovereignty of the country. On July 2, 1902 it was telegraphed by Elihu Root, U.S. Secretary of War, that all provincial governments were successfully established all over the Philippines. He added that the only exception were those places occupied by the tribes of the Moros. They have been resisting the U.S. forces for a number of years.     The National Library of Philippines currently houses the Declaration. Just like any other document in the said library, the Declaration requires permission for it to be seen by viewers. It is a series of declarations of independence which consists also of the United Statse Declaration of Independence.
    It is a bizarre geological formation which consists of at least 1,260 hills.  Each hill is covered with green grass which turns to brown in the dry season making it look like chocolates. The images of these hills are marked in Bohol’s provincial flag and seal as a symbol of prosperity.   Because of its fame among tourists, the Chocolate Hills were added in the list of Philippine Tourism Authority’s tourist destinations. It is also considered as the third National Geological Monument of the Philippines.     The Chocolate hills are all dome-shaped and symmetrical in shape. They differ in sizes some from 30-50 meters high. Each of these hills is made of limestone covered by grass. It is also estimated to have 1,268 up to 1,776 mounds making up the whole group of hills which are scattered in Carmen, Sagbayan and Batuan towns. The hills got its name from the color it turns to during dry seasons-chocolate brown. This is due to the drying leaves of the grass covering it. The Chocolate hills would look like endless giant dome chocolates lined up as far as the eye can see during the summer.     The Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum spontaneum, and Compositae are the species of grass which grows on these hills. Groups of ferns can also be found covering the layers. The cultivation of rice is mainly found in between each hill. Because of quarrying activities, these vegetations are now threatened.     The Chocolate Hills has some legends explaining the origin of the Chocolate Hills. The first one explains that there used to be two giants who fought and hurled rocks and giant boulders at each other. When they grew tired they reconciled and left the place forgetting to clean up. Another legend has it that a giant called Arogo cried so much for the death of a beloved mortal so much that the Chocolate Hills were formed. The third legend claims that it was a giant carabao eating all of the town’s crops. The townsfolk planned and fed the giant with spoiled food and so it has defecated large mounds. These mounds then dried up turning into the Chocolate Hills.     But whatever the legends say, a more scientific explanation could be found and read at a viewing deck located in Carmen, Bohol. The plaque explains that the hills were originally marine limestone underneath which is hardened clay. The shapes turned into what it is today due to constant rain, erosion and coral uplifting.     Because of its special characteristics in terms of science and tourism, the chocolate hills were declared as a National Geological Monument in June 18, 1988 by the National Committee on Geological Sciences. And on July 1, 1997 President Fidel Ramos signed the Proclamation No.1037 which gave more protection to the site. This proclamation established the need to preserve and maintain the chocolate hills. It also established strategies to avoid illegal exploitations of the tourist landmark.     At present there are two ways to view the Hills of Bohol. One is to go to the “Chocolate Hills Complex” and another is at the “Sagbayan Peak”.
    The Rafflesia comes from the major family of flowering plants which are parasitic. It has an estimate of 28 main species which could be found in Southeast Asian countries one of which is the Philippines. Rafflesia was first discovered in an Indonesian rain forest. It was found by Dr. Joseph Arnold’s guide in 1818. The plant though got its name from the leader of that expedition. His name was Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. The Rafflesia was originally found in between years 1791-94 by Louis Deschamps but according to history his notes bout it were captured by the British.     The plant has a unique body which is void of stems, leaves nor does it have roots. Instead it only consists of an absorptive organ which is located inside the vine. It belongs to the holoparasite vines of the Vitaceae. On the outside the plant looks like a flower with five large petals around its body. The size of the Rafflesia in diameter is 100cm with a weight of 22pounds. Aside from looking rotten there emanates from it a rotten smell which is why it has many local names. Some call it the “rotten flower” and others would name it the “meat flower” because it looks like meat. Remarkably, the rotten smell of the flower draws insects to it.      There are two general species of the Rafflesia. The first one is the Malaysian and the other is the Philippine species. In 2002, Filipino scientists set out for myriads of research activities where they discovered various species of the Giant Flower. The first Rafflesia was discovered in Antique Province on the mountains. Its features were unique compared to all other species that were found. By 2005, the next rafflesia was found in Compostela Valley of Mindanao. It had an equal size with that of the first rafflesia having a size of 50-65 centimeters in diameter.     In 1991 a collection of Rafflesia species were found but were not given names. In 2006 Danny Balete collected them all and studied them to find out that they were different from the R.manillana found in Luzon. Thus it was given the name R. baletei. In the following year another group of species was found by Dr. Julie Barcelona in Bukidnon. Another was found on the same year in Mount Banahaw of Luzon. Every year since 2002 scientists would find new species of this giant flower from different cities and provinces of the country. Until in 2010 the tenth Rafflesia was discovered.     The most famous Rafflesia discovered in the Philippines is called the Rafflesia philippensis. It was given its name by Blanco. It has a diameter of twenty nine up to thirty two centimeters when it has fully opened. Its species were found to be scattered around the vicinities of the Mount Banahaw National Park. In 2003 the park was closed for the Rafflesia researchers to make more studies on the population of the plant.     Among other names the plant is known also as the “corpse flower” because of its odor and meat-like structure. It has 20 general species known to exist. Despite its gigantic size, the flower is said to be safe to touch.
Are you ready for the latest trend in the world of plastic surgery? Gone are the days when female celebrities and even common people rooted for Angelina Jolie’s pouty lips. A full and a duck shape lips is no longer what people would like to have right now. Well, what do people expect? A trend is something that changes over time. People gone tired of having the same appearance and now another beauty trend has been launched to the public.      The exact opposite of that pouty and kissable lips comes in which is termed as the lip reduction surgery. This is basically something which people were not ready prepared of. When having a pouty lip became a trend, lots of women complained because only few were gifted to have natural pouty lips. However with this new plastic surgery procedure, it is something beyond the normal size of thin lips.      The goal of this procedure is to create a new lip line by removing or reducing the size of the upper lip so you can have thinner and pouty lips as well. It’s like having a thin body with curves, the new statement of sexy. Sounds painful right? It is indeed painful and patients are even put into local anesthesia in order for them to bear the pain. Although the procedure only takes like 15mins to 30mins to finish, patients are advised to be under a soft diet plan for about a week or so or until the lips are free from swelling. Since it is a surgery, expect to witness sutures which could actually resemble to serial killers’ lips in movies or like the famous Frankenstein. Sutures either dissolved naturally or can be removed manually.      If you are planning to have this lip-reduction surgery you better prepare not only your lips but your pockets as well. Unlike the augmentation process or the ones to achieve fuller lips which are usually done with the help of injectable fillers, lip-reduction surgery is really expensive.  Reduction is now more expensive than augmentation, see the trend? So you better think twice or even thrice before you decide to have this procedure.      In no time several clinics specializing in plastic surgery will offer this in the Philippines, people are then advised to please consult licensed and certified cosmetic surgeons to keep you safe from the possible risk of undergoing a surgical procedure which may put your life in a great risk.   
    One of the solidest tree in the world is a tree widely known as Narra and grows densely in the Philippines. Its scientific name is the Pterocarpus. It is also known in other countries as the New Guinea Rosewood or Malay Paduak. Others call it Pashu Padauk. Among other countries aside from Philippines, the Narra is also found in Indonesia, China, Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.     The tree grows up from thirty up to forty meters high. It has a trunk with an average of two meters in diameter. It is a deciduous tree that is very large in structure. Its leaves are usually 12-22 centimeters long. The pinnate has 5 up to 11 leaflets with a girth that is 12 to 34 meters wide. The flowers of the narra grows in panicles which is 6 to 13 centimeters long. This panicle contains fe to some flowers. The months of the flowering of the Narra depends on the country where it grows. In Philippines the flowering takes place starting from February to May. The flowers are fragrant but only slightly. The normal color is yellow or sometimes orange-yellow. The flowers of Narra also grows fruits that are semiorbicular pods of 2 to 3 cm in diameter. They are surrounded by flat wings which are 4-6 cm in diameter. These wing-like figures helps in the dispersals of the wind.      The Narra is considered as one of the national symbols of the Philippines. This is due to its variety in terms of uses and aids in the daily lives of the people. The constituents of the tree is known to yield “kino” which contains kinotannic acid. The woods are also known to yield othe constituents such as narrin, santalin and angolensin. The Narra is notable for its swiftness in growth and its strength in terms of hardness. It is the top hardest tree in the Philippines. Aside from that, it can grow well regardless if its planted on bottom lands. It is also remarkable for being less vulnerable to pests and diseases compared to other trees.     There are some parts of Narra that are edible too. Its leaves and flowers are one of the examples. Also, the flowers have been reported as being a good source for honey. Aside from being edible, the narra tree offers medicinal aid to help heal diseases and other daily needs. For example, the infusion of its leaf can be used for making shampoo. It can also be used for treating diarrhea, stones, dropsy, sores and ailments in the bladder.      In other cases, the leaves of the Narra tree when they are still young can be boiled and used on boils, ulcers and prickly heat. The decoction of it can be used as aid for sore throats, as astringents or as mouthwash to treat toothaches. Bladder stones and dropsy can be dissolved too by the decoction of its leaves. Other benefits of the Narra can be taken from its resin which is a “kino” which can be used for the treatment of chronic diarrhea and hemorrhages.     The strength of the Narra tree is not only found in the physical structure of its body but also in the gentler parts which consists of the flowers and its leaves and fruits.

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People come in all shapes and sizes, even down to our faces. The right frame for the right face shape can dramatically change your whole look. How will you know what your face shape is? Easy! Just go in front of a mirror and use an erasable marker to trace the outline of your reflection.       There are 7 basic face shapes, each having different features that would help you narrow down on your choice. It’s all about balance. Find frames that are opposite to your face shape, frames that don’t accentuate your shape but help enhance it. Here are a few tips to remember:     a.    Oval – Lucky you! They say this is the best shape to work on because of its natural symmetry and balance. You can literally wear any style with ease and confidence. TRY: Any Style & Wide frames. Play around with different frames that will suit your personality. Just aim for a frame width that’s just enough to match the widest part of your face. AVOID: Too Small or Short frames.     b.    Round – Most people with round faces tend to look cute and youthful, with its proportional width and length, full cheeks and a soft chin line and forehead. TRY: Small, Square, Angular frames. Always go for opposite shapes so as not to exaggerate your face shape but help give balance. Rectangular frames can make your face appear longer and thinner. AVOID: Rimless, Circular Glasses.     c.    Square – With a strong jaw, broad forehead, proportional in width and length, this type of face is highly fashionable as you can experiment with round frames like the legendary Harry Potter. TRY: Soft, Oval or Circular Frames. These help soften the angles of your face. Also, glasses that can sit on the bridge of your nose will help lengthen it. AVOID: Boxy Frames.     d.    Diamond – narrow forehead and jaw line, with wide or high cheekbones; you’re like the opposite of the round face. TRY: Rimless, Cat-eye or Oval Glasses. Round frames help soften the angles and contour of your face. Plus you get to play around with cat-eyes as they sweep up your face and help emphasize the assets of your face like the cheekbones.  AVOID: Boxy, Wide Frames. Best stay away from frames that could widen your cheeks more.     e.    Oblong – More like an elongated version of the oval. Your face would be longer than it is wide. TRY: Round or Square, Oversized Wide Frames. Like the oval, you can still rock almost any style you want! But make sure that they’re wider than your face and give it more depth. Low-bridged ones can help shorten your nose. AVOID:     Too Small or Short.     f.    Rectangular – The length of an oblong but with a strong hot-looking jaw line. TRY: Curvy, Oval Glasses, Oversized Wide Frames. The wider they are, the more flattering. AVOID: Rectangle Glasses.     g.    Heart (Base-up) or Triangle (Base-down) – This shape can either have a wide forehead but cute and delicate jaw or the opposite. TRY: Rimless Glasses (for hearts), Cat-eyes (for triangles). You’d look beautiful in thin, light-metal or clear plastic frames as these help balance your forehead. Cat eyes also help sweep it up for triangles. AVOID: Bold, Over-embellished frames.  
   Ever heard of the quote, “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper”? Though most of us would think it’s just an easy quote to remind us how we should eat everyday but strange enough, this proverb actually has scientific proof backing it up, especially the breakfast part. It’s not called “breakfast” for nothing; it essentially means you’re breaking the fast that you went through when you’ve gone to sleep. It’s what wakes your body up, significantly comprises a great portion of your day’s energy supply, nutrient intake, concentration and performance, and overall mood. Basically, your breakfast can make or break you for the rest of the day.       As they say, “you are what you eat”; this applies especially during the first meal of the day. That said; don’t eat breakfast just for the sake of eating breakfast. What you eat is also the most crucial part to remember. You’re better off NOT eating breakfast at all compared to eating an unhealthy one. So if you’re going to eat, eat a healthy breakfast compared to those common sugary ones (like doughnuts, pancakes, waffles, muffins, even fruit juices). Eating these may be easier and tempting as they give you that highly sought after jolt of energy, but that sudden spike will just as easily drop down and leave you tired, cranky and even hungrier than before. Why is that, you may ask? Food high in sugar and low in protein are easily digested. In fact, you could actually control your appetite if you eat first thing in the morning.      Studies have shown breakfast eaters are leaner and gain less weight compared to their non-breakfast-eating counterpart. This is because your hunger will dramatically curb for the rest of the day. You thought skipping those few calories in the morning is going to help you? Guess again. People set themselves up to eat more at lunch and throughout the day, and inevitably make bad food choices, if they choose to skip their first meal. As I’ll tell you, time and time again, breakfast is THE deal-breaker.     A well-balanced breakfast is comprised of the right combination of good carbs, fiber and protein. Good thing, you have a lot of options, like oat meals, eggs paired with good fruits like bananas, grapefruits, etc., wheat-infused meals, vegetables and berries. Watermelons are also a great way to rehydrate early in the morning. The internet is swarming with terrific ideas to help you expand your horizon. No matter what your option is, never ever miss out again on the most important chow time in your day.  
    Water: The one element planet Earth has that sets it apart from all the other planets in our system. This is also the reason why only our planet is able to sustain life, its surface covered with 71 percent water. The human body itself is roughly made up of 60% water; essentially more than half of our being is H2O, which is why it is so vital for us to keep hydrated. A person can survive up to a proverbial 40 days without food, but would be a goner in a week’s time without water.      The question is how much water is enough on a daily basis? Most people have grown up using the 8x8 rule, or in layman’s term, drinking eight (ounce) glasses of water per day, which would be half a gallon or about 2 liters. The funny thing is there’s not much evidence to back this myth up except it’s just easy to remember. In reality, you have to note that the actual amount depends on a lot of factors like age, weight, gender, how physically active you are, the weather, etc.     Studies have shown that the average adult male will need 3.7 liters of fluids per day, while females need 2.7 liters. Children and teens would be: 1 liter (5 glasses) for 5-8 year olds, 1.5 liters (7 glasses) for 9-12 year olds, and 2 liters (8 to 10 glasses) for 13+ years.      Another good question to ask is how can you tell if you’re drinking enough water? Simple: check your urine. If you’re not drinking enough, your urine will look yellowish or have an orange color. The best indication is when it has a clear or pale yellow color. Soft bowel movements are a good sign too.     Note that you don’t really have to wait feeling thirsty to drink. Your body is constantly using up water and thirst is your body’s way of telling you that you’re becoming dehydrated. The good thing is all forms of fluid you take in counts. This includes milk, juice, tea, and even coffee, though water is still the best. Fruits and vegetables are a great source too. That said, don’t drink while you’re taking a meal or munching on snacks. It can be tempting but doing so may cause bloating and indigestion, as the water will counteract with the digesting enzymes your body is producing. The best time to drink would be 15-30 minutes prior or after a meal.     No matter how busy you get, don’t ever forget to refill, no matter what the means. Keep a water bottle handy to remind you. Never underestimate a simple glass of water to charge up for the whole day. A healthier you is a better you.  
Communication is one of the key things that give our lives meaning in our stay here on Earth. With the advent of technology, the Internet we know today has been a very vital tool for this. Originally, in the 1950’s, the Internet was made for the military: to use computers in defeating the Soviet Union and its allies by an army networked together. Because of the immobility of computers back then, scientists were prompted to create a wireless network capable of linking to other networks of computers miles and miles away. And poof! It became the Internet! Forty years later, it may not have served its intended purpose back then, but like an invisible army, this same Internet has now conquered the entire globe and has kept on growing and innovating. It’s no wonder people are inevitably evolving with it as well.     Whether you’re a digital native or just learning the ropes, here’s a quick guide to the latest trends of some of the most popular apps known to man as of 2017:  1.    Facebook  With over 1 billion downloads up to this date, with its users on a constant love-hate relationship because of its constant update, Facebook has been here for 13 years, starting from 2004, and was founded by Mark Zuckerberg and colleagues. It is one of today’s leading social media apps where you can connect with friends and family, share photos and videos, and express yourself. Here’s the latest: •    Augmented Reality – AR is technology which combines virtual reality with our reality as it overlays digital text and objects on to the real world. Mark has just recently announced that they are developing augmented-reality (AR) glasses. •    In-App (AR) Camera Filters – Partly, one of the reasons why they have integrated new camera filters into the app is to help people get familiar and ease in the transition of this new tech. But the most part is that it’s just fun! This feature is jam-packed with effects like masks, frames and all sorts of stuff you can apply to your photos or videos.   2.    Instagram Also with a whopping 1 billion downloads, Instagram is now 7 years old. Created by Kevin Systrom for iOS in 2010 (and released an Android version in 2012), Instagram is a pretty straightforward app. As its namesake, you “instantly” share photos and videos publicly or privately. Here are its newest deals: •    New Direct – disappearing photos and videos will now appear alongside text messages and shared posts; in other words, your permanent and temporary shares can now be seen in one seamless thread, turning it into beautiful visual conversations. Simple as it is, the dev’s really took their time to make this a thing. •    Carousel Posts - in other words, Multiple Image Posts, which will allow you to make Insta-posts slide-showing up to 10 images/videos. It’s like posting a moving album!   3.    Snapchat Originally, Snapchat was first named “Picaboo” (cute, right?) as the intent was to make an app that will allow  “disappearing posts” or pictures and messages that are only available for a short amount of time and will auto-delete itself. I bet James Bond would love this app. Let’s take a look at what’s new with our little ghost: •    Snapchat Search – The search bar is now practically everywhere! On the chat and camera screen, and on Stories; this way it’ll be easier to find your contacts or even make new ones. •    Bitmoji Takeover – is your own personal emoji or avatar, and much like the search bar, Bitmoji is now all over the place… in chat, profile, and in search results. •    Global Snapchat Story – Story now goes global! You get to post and see stories from all around the world even if you’re not there where the Story was held.   4.    Twitter  Ever heard of that line, “A little bird told me”? I’m guessing that’s where Twitter got its inspiration for its phenomenal “tweets”, messages that only consist of 140 characters. Here you can get the latest scoops from news to entertainment and politics, you name it. Here are some of its latest updates:   •    Twitter Lite – a fast data-friendly version of this app for those who have slow connections, making it more accessible to all kinds of people. Plus, they’ve added a new Data Saver Mode to further cut down on the mobile data used. Through this mode, you only get a preview of images and videos and you simply click which ones you want to fully load.   •    Safety Upgrades – Twitter has been working overtime to ensure their consumers’ safety and privacy. The team addressed several issues on cyber-abuse, like identifying abusive content and stopping the creation of new abusive accounts, collapsing potentially abusive or low-quality tweets, etc. They also introduced a “safe search” where you can filter Tweets that may contain sensitive contents and Tweets from accounts you’ve blocked or muted.
Nowadays people can be deceived easily by what they can see in the internet. Some people just couldn’t comprehend that not all being posted online are true. Being popular is now equivalent to being an internet sensation. Lately, a new product innovation has been launched to the public and became really popular in no time. Once a product comes with amazing videos it will surely caught the attention of the people, not to mention the likes and shares that actually contribute to its popularity.     But how sure are you that what you saw and just shared in your account is actually true and legit? Let me introduce to you “Ooho” or the edible water which has gained millions of views all over the world through social media. People were greatly amazed of the concept of an edible water container as people are now very much conscious with the environment and nature.     It is absolutely a great idea however it is actually a bit unrealistic. Its goal is to replace the use of plastic bottles and save the environment. However It can never replace the traditional use of bottles. It can only be limited to gulp sizes. The container is edible which means you can ingest it right away, or slowly sip from it and consume the entire thing. Thus, you cannot have it in more than 500ml, and absolutely not in 1liter. So you have the usual sizes instead, but how are you going to secure it inside your bag? Or how long can you actually hold to it before you became thirsty again? And one more thing, how can you share it with someone else? Sharing your drink isn’t a question of being hygienic it is all about being convenient to its consumers.      Aside from being impractical, care also to check on its packaging. The company just defeats its purpose of getting rid or plastics and non-biodegradable materials, since Ooho comes in a plastic packaging, so actually it’s just the same thing. It’s a complete lie. Although the concept is really great but the means of delivering it isn’t the best option right now. Maybe they can collaborate with other companies creating biodegradable materials for its packaging.      The hype for Ooho is undeniably high right now, but people should try to educate themselves a lot more and check if it’s really something worth the amazement of if they are just being deceived with what they just saw.