The Mount Mayon is a volcano that has an exact symmetrical cone. It is called the "perfect cone". The location of the volcano is at the province of Albay in Luzon. The perfect cone has an elevation of 8,081 ft with a prominence of 8,028 ft. As an active volcano its last eruption was on the year 2010. Mayon can be found at the tip or within the boundary of Legazpi City. In the year 2000 it was developed into a national park. It is also nicknamed as Bulkang Magayon after the legend of "Daragang Mayon". The perfect cone of the volcano was formed by layers of lava flows and eruptions that it has gone through in the past years. It is included in the Pacific Ring of Fire like other volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. The volcano is situated in the east side of Luzon with a position close to the Philippine Trench or the boundary wherein the Sea Plate is placed right under the Mobile Belt. When these plates collide with the oceanic plate it is driven down towards the Earth’s mantle. Magma enters and finds a way through exit points such as the Mount Mayon through those gaps in the crust created by the collision of plates. For over 400 years Mayon Volcano has erupted 48 times. It is the most active volcano in the Philippines. Its most vicious eruption ever recorded was on February 1, 1814 when the volcano spitted black ashes continuously until it buried Cagsawa town. It is the most fatal explosion as its casualties rose to 2,200 Albay residents. There are theories that this explosion triggered the eruption in Mount Tambora the following year which led to the “Year Without Summer” of 1816. As for the longest eruption without any interruption the Mayon volcano spitted fire for seven days starting on June 23, 1897. It erupted eastward so that Bacacay Village was buried 49ft under the lava. This eruption took 100 lives in Libon and another 400 from the other surrounding villages. Fortunately in the 1984 eruption an estimated number of more than 70,000 people were evacuated from danger zones before the volcano erupted. There were low casualties also in the 1993 eruption compared to past eruptions as only 77 were killed most of which were farmers. It was the same with the 2006 eruption which has no record of any loss of life. It is reported though that the said eruption was now weaker than the past. But some scientists still believe that the rumblings and activities that Mount Mayon is going through constantly from 2006 to 2011 are all part of a possibly more destructive eruption somewhere in the future. Legends were offered by the people in an attempt to provide answers to the mysterious origin of Mayon. According to them there used to be a princess who had a very possessive uncle named Magayon. Men were so afraid to court the girl because of her uncle. One day a warrior got so obsessed with the princess. He was so much in love that he convinced her to go with him to a faraway place. With Magayon in pursuit the princess and the warrior prayed for help from the gods. Suddenly there came a landslide which buried Magayon alive. Local folks believe that it is Magayon's anger which bursts out from the Mount's cone.
Once you live with a furry creature, you should get used with the idea that you need to live with their fur as well. You will absolutely see it all over your house. There is no escape from fur. Sometimes even freshly washed clothes contain fur on them. This is the reality and every pet owner should live with it. However, someone decided to create a solution to this problem. Not that he doesn’t love his dogs for who they are, he just thought something could actually make things better for him and his dog. He created these new dog leotards. It has been circulating the internet now and people showed great appreciation on what he has created. Aside from solving the problem, it seems really cute on any dog breed. This type of clothes was designed to cover the legs, body and up to the neckline. Although as you can see, the dog’s head is free, hair on the head are manageable enough unlike those in its body. With regards to the material used for this clothing, owners should not worry about the comfort of their pets. This is actually made from good kind of cloth which is breathable and stretchy at the same time. It allows your dog to move fully without any fuss. It comes in different colors and hopefully in different designs as well. However, owners are reminded not to let their dogs wear this clothing for quite a period of time because this actually doesn’t have holes for pooping and peeing. It is because, originally, this dog leotard was intended to be used in car travels, or long rides so that the dog’s fur will not spread on the entire car. Cleaning cars from fur is such a tough job. It is the main reason why the creator of these clothes created it. Cleaning an entire house from your dog’s fur is already a common thing to do and isn’t actually troublesome at all. However it is absolutely different when it comes to the car area.
The Dinagyang Festival is both a cultural and religious festival. It is held in Iloilo City on January every year on the 4th Sunday. Sometimes it is celebrated right after the Sinulog ends in Cebu. The Dinagyang Festival is a tribute to Santo Nino and the Malay settlers’ arrival in Panay. The Festival in November of 1967. That year, Reverend Ambrosio Galindez led the introduction to the people of the Santo Nino devotion. In the following year, Father Enderez brought a replica of the Santo Nino in Cebu to Iloilo and gave it to the Parish of San Jose as a gift. The faithful Catholics as an honor to Santo Nino received the image from the local Airport and paraded it on the streets. When the Marcos regime announced its order on all the regions of the Philippines to create festivals in order to improve the country’s tourism in 1977, Iloilo city was already ready to provide with its own Iloilo Ati-atihan. The Dinagyang Festival is a festival divided into different events. The first event focuses on the Ati-Ati Street Dance where participants dance in groups. The second event is the Kasadyahan Street dancing and finally, the last event is the choosing of the Miss Dinagyang. In present times, most of the parts of the festival is consisted by numerous tribes who are called “tribus”. Originally the dancers were people belonging to Ati tribes. But today, no real Ati joins the event nor do they benefit from it. The dancing in the festivals requires some rules to be followed. Performers who join should have their skins painted brown. Aside from that they are only allowed to use materials which comes from indigenous materials for their costumes. The dancing also should be performed with music which uses drums only as its instrument. Because of the efforts of the participants and performers, from 2006 up to 2008 the Dinagyang Festival made it as the top Event for Tourism. Also, it has a record of being the first ever festival in the world to be supported by United Nations. The Dinagyang Festival has introduced innovations through years of its celebration. These are innovations which through the years also influenced some of the festivals in the Philippines. The Carousel Performance was initiated by the said festival which is simultaneously performed by the tribes in competition. The Mobile Risers was first introduced in 1994 by the Bola-bola tribu. It is a prominent choreography in the Dinagyang festival which has become popular in other festivals too. The Dinagyang Pipes innovation are pipes which are beaten with rubber paddles. The pipes all produce sounds which depends on its size and length. Finally, the Dagoy mascot which is also the first mascot created for festivals in the Philippines was produced from the Dinagyang festival. The image of Dagoy was first taken from a sketch competition in Dinagyang on 2002. Later on, it became official as the logo of the Dinagyang. The caricature portrays a young warrior whose character symbolizes the friendship of the natives and tourists who gather together to celebrate the festival.
If there are things that remained pleasing to the eyes of the people particularly the women, one of these is make-up or cosmetics. Men could even question a lot or almost all of women why they would really want to have a set of make up at home or why do they keep a make-up kit inside their bags at all times? Men often wondered why it appears like women are so delighted with cosmetic and are even confused why they men on the other hand have little or no interest at all when it comes to make up. If there is someone or something to blame about the differences of perception of men and women towards make-up it is none other than the society’s standards. Women were raised to become attractive. They were conditioned that in order for other people to like them they must always be beautiful, attractive and appealing. They need to observe proper grooming at all times, smell good and do what is likable to others. Meanwhile men were simply raised not to bother about their physical attributes. They were conditioned to become more concern on their skills, their strength and other things that could contribute to them becoming manly enough. With this regard, and the changing demands and standards of the society when it comes to beauty, women are trying their very best to look appealing and lovable like what they were taught about. With women’s quest to acquire an irresistible kind of beauty, they discovered make-up. Not all women were born with to have the qualities that the society declares to be ideal and beautiful. There are also some women who are exposed to certain things which made a huge effect on their physical traits. The thing about make-up and beauty is that when it seems appealing to the eyes of most of the people or to the society then it is good and acceptable. There is nothing wrong about choosing cosmetics and enhancing one’s beauty, however the question on how it started and why most women are into it is all because of the society. Almost all people want to look good. Nobody wants to look like a joker or something inappropriate. Looking good is already embedded inside the heads of the people. It is something you cannot just ignore. But it should not also keep you from loving yourself more of who you are and what you are.
The Philippine Eagle is an eagle which belongs to the family Acciptridae. This family is known to be prevalent in Philippine forests. The Eagle has also been called the Monkey-eating Eagle. The Eagle has a world record in terms of length as being the largest. But in terms of weight and bulk, the Harpy and Steller’s Sea Eagle is larger. It was declared by the country as the Philippine national bird due to its power and it being one of the rarest in the world. The bird though is currently and critically endangered because of the deforestation of its habitat. Killing the Philippine Eagle is considered an act of crime in the country and is punishable with 12 years in jail and fines. The appearance of the Philippine Eagle resembles that of a bird with a lion’s mane. This is due to its brown long feathers forming a shaggy crest on its nape. Its image is also similar to that of a mythical griffin. The bird has a brown crown and a dark face. Underneath its wings the color is white, but the dark brown is the main color of its back. Its legs are yellow in color and had a large size with mighty and dark claws. The beak of the bird is high-arched and bluish gray similar to the color of its eyes. The Philippine Eagle is 2-3ft 4inches long which has made it the longest extant of eagles. The largest of the in the Philippines is 3ft 8inches in size though it was not considered as a representative to the wild Eagles due to the differences in food intake. This one was found in the Field Museum of Natural History provided with more food than other Philippine Eagles. According to comparisons made on the sexes of these birds, it is said that the male is 10% tinier than the female eagle. One characteristic of the Philippine Eagle is its loud and high-pitched whistles. It was John Whitehead with his servant Juan was the person who discovered the bird in 1896. The Philippine Eagle was initially called the monkey-eating eagle due to the reports of natives in Samar claiming the bird to prey only on monkeys. It was from these reports that its Greek name was established as “pithecus phagus” or “eater of monkey”. The name was changed to the Philippine Eagle after confirmations that the eagle did feed on other animals.The bird has other names too in the Philippines. It has been named as “haring ibon”, “haribon” and “agila”. The Agila is considered to be endemic in the Philippines specifically in places such as Mindanao, Leyte, Samar and Luzon. There are 82 up to 233 breeding pairs found in Mindanao while only 6 of them can be found in Samara. Two breeding pairs reside in Leyte and some in Luzon. In forests, the eagle can be found only in very high areas of mountains ranging to over 2,000 meters. The Philippine Eagle is by nature a monogamous bird. It takes 2 years for its breeding to be completed. When it has found its mate it will stay together their whole lives.
The Baclayon Church is considered to be one of the oldest churches in the Philippines. It is also one of the most preserved Jesuit churches in the country. It stands today with the same materials that it was made of since the beginning except for a few additions of modern façade and stone buildings. Square blocks cut from coral stones make up most of the figure of the church. The native laborers carried them from the sea using bamboo. They then used this bamboo to carry the corals and piled it on top of each other. They also used egg whites as cement to hold the blocks together. Spanish priests Juan de Torres and Gabriel Sanchez first came into Baclayon in 1595 from Cebu City. Their people erected a visita immediately after their arrival. This is because the priests realized that there was no decent place to celebrate the Mass. The church in the beginning of its construction was made from bamboo. But because of their Moro enemies, the building has to be stopped. They moved their headquarters to Loboc and the construction of the church was commenced only in 1717. The building of the church was then completed in 1727. In 1835 the large bell was installed in the building. Inside the church are green gilded altars. During the 18th century their versions of Baroque were very popular. The interior of the church also displays a retablo. This retablo shows the images of the saints of Recollect devotion. But still it is traced back to the Jesuits because the motto “ Ad majorem Dei gloriam” is surmounted in the main altar. The builders of the church also carved two benches in the nave on low relief. Also, the painting of Ascension could be found in that nave along with that of Church Fathers and San Vicente Ferrer. The church is filled with valuable relics from the 19th century. A pipe organ which is now in bad shape still remains to be seen inside. Even the designs of the choir and organ loft are cut with decorations of the past. The stucco finish painting though of the church contrasts the style of the interior. The church also has a jail behind it where people were punished for violating the Catholic rules. Outside and near the church is an old convent. It has a small museum inside it which contains antiques that date back to the 16th century. These collections include important figures such as the ivory statue of Christ, the statue of Blessed Virgin, relics of St. Ignatius and paintings by the Filipino painter Gatchalian. The trend of churches containing museums that kept lots of important relics to the Christian faith started in Baclayon. It has been declared as National Historic Treasure because of its superb preservation making it the second oldest church in the Philippines. Aside from its age, the structure and design being a product of the Spanish Colonial architecture projects a fascinating view. Thousands of visitors and tourists visit the church every year because of its rich historical background and relics.
The Tabon Caves are set in Lipuun Point Reservation in Palawan. It is a 138-hectare of island which is linked to Palawan’s mainland by a forest. They are groups of caves found in the northern parts of the Quezon municipality in Palawan province on Palawan Island. The name of the caves was taken from the Tabon Scrubfowl, a bird with a large foot which lays eggs in the cave. South of the Tabon Caves is the town proper of Quezon. On the west they are bordered by Barangay Panitian. Meanwhile, the South China Sea is located on the north and eastern parts of these caves. Their mouths lay 33meters above sea level. In the year 1962, researcher Dr. Robert B. Fox and his team found the skull of the Tabon man in one of the Tabon caves. It is reported that the remains were approximately 22-24,000 years old. The Tabon man belongs to the species of the Homo Sapien or better known as the intelligent and modern man. They have also found tools, jars, bones and jewelry which dates back fifty thousand years ago. These are the oldest remains ever found in the country. This discovery has indicated habitation 50,000 years ago while the limestone found in it is believed to date back to the Lower Middle Miocene Period which is equivalent to 25 million years back in human history. Ten years later, in April of 1972 the Lipuun Point Reservation became a Site Museum Reservation. It was also recognized as a priority site for the development of tourism of natural and culture heritage in 1991. Because the oldest human remnant ever to be found in the Philippines, the Tabon man was found in the Tabon Cave, the caves gained the title of being the country’s Cradle of Civilization. It plays a very significant role in the discovery and knowledge of the history and heritage of Filipinos. According to the discoveries, the Tabon Caves is where one of the first habitants of the Philippines lived and was buried. The remains show that Tabon men lived in the cave. It says that they lived on small animals like bats and birds due to the small sizes of their stone tools. There were charcoals left from cooking fires. The Guri Cave is the most important cave in the Tabon Cave complex because it is considered as the cave where the early people lived. These people lived earlier than the Tabon man, it was said. Archaeologists have found layers of soil inside which contained of garbage and a collection of marine shells left by the early people. It is estimated that their habituation dates back to 5000 and 2000 years B.C. The Tabon Cave Complex is an attraction for both tourists and archaeologists. It contains vital information on the history and culture of the country’s heritage. It is the Philippine’s Cradle of Civilization. On the other hand, it provides a first-hand experience and a scenic view to visitors on one of the oldest abodes of ancient men.
Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban. All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain. The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines. Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario. The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years. The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.
The word Bajau is a collective term for indigenous groups of people. These groups have also blended with the culture of the Sana which is why they are called the Sama-Bajau. In history the term Sama describes indigenous people who live more in areas of land. On the other hand the term Bajau is used for ethnic groups residing near the seas or on seas or those who dwell in boats. The Badjau People or also called the Sama or Samal are indigenous ethnic groups found in Maritime Southeast Asia. They live mainly on the seas using wooden boats like the Vintas. This ethnic group originally came from the Sulu Archipelago. They also lived in some areas of Mindanao and northern Borneo. For half a century though, the Badjaus have been migrating to neighboring countries and also in the northern Philippines. This is due to the ongoing conflicts in the ARMM ( Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao). At present the Badjaus are considered to be one of the largest ethnic groups in Sabah. They make up almost 15% of the state’s population. These people have also migrated in Indonesia but the number of their population remains unanimous. The Bajau were sometimes associated with other ethnic groups of similar lifestyles. They have been called Sea Gypsies. The outward spreading of the Bajau from their old homes to other countries wasalso associated with the development of sea trade in modern times. The origin of the term Bajau was never clarified. It is generally used to describe or call these ethnic groups. Ironically, they themselves never used the term Bajaus to describe themselves. They would call themselves according to their tribe’s names, the place they live in or where they came from. But even so these people share the same some of their vocabularies and bodily features. That is why agree with being called Bajaus in general. As a large ethnic group, the Bajaus have subgroups within themselves. And although they share some genetic characteristics and parts of their vocabularies, each of their groups had their own unique languages and traditions. However, some of these subgroups are able to understand the others’ languages. The Simunul for example, which are found in Sabah are able to communicate with other Bajaus using the Tausug language. There are numerous subgroups comprising the Bajaus. The UbianBajaus are the first of these groups. They are originally from the island of South Ubian located in Tawi-Tawi of the Philippines. In Sabah they are considered to be the largest group of Bajaus. They live in minorities around the Kudat and Semporna Towns in Sabah, Malaysia. The Bannaran is another subgroup which originated also in Tawi-Tawi but on the Bannaran Island. They are also found Kudat and Semporna. The SamalBajaus is another group originating from the coasts of Sabah. But many of them have migrated north up to the Visayas and southern Luzon islands. The Bajau people vary in their religious beliefs as well as their cultures. Their faiths include the strict Sunni Islam, folk islam and then there are others who are dedicated to ancestor worship. A minority of them are Christians too.
The word Durian came from an Indonesian word duri which means “thorn”. It is a fruit which belongs to a certain species of a tree called the genus Durio. It is well known in Southeast Asia with the nickname of “the fruit king”. The fruit is noticeable for its bulky size, hard and large thorns covered with husk, and its famous Durian odor. Some Durians are oblong in size but others are round. The husk’s color varies from brown to green. The color of its flesh also vary depending on its species: some are yellow while others are red. The odors emanating from the fruit comes from its flesh which is edible. It is so strong that even when the husk is intact the odor comes out of it. And although some would find it pleasant and fragrant, most people react negatively to it. Because of that the fruit has been banned in some hotels or public transportations in Asia. The Durian can be eaten in numerous ways, in different stages of its ripeness and is used as an addition to flavors on all kinds of sweets and savory in Asian foods. The seeds have also been found to be edible when it is cooked. The Durian has 30 different species from the genus Durio. But out of the thirty only nine species are considered edible. Only one of the 9 species called the Durio zibethinus are available in the international market. The other 8 are sold locally in the regions where they are grown. The trees of the King of the Fruits grow up to fifty metres. It has oblong evergreen leaves and flowers which are clustered in the branches. The usual durian tree takes about 4 to 5 years before it can produce fruits. The fruits then, after pollination takes up to 3 months before it matures. Durian has been known in southern Asia even in the prehistoric times. But in the western world, the fruit has only been introduced 600 years ago. In the 15th century Europian by the name of Niccolo Da Conti travelled and came to southeast Asia where he discovered the fruit. The fruit has wide variety of uses in different cuisines from all over Asia. Over the years it has been used to add flavor to ice kakangs, Malay candies, dodols (sweets from Mindanao), biscuits, ice creams and mooncakes. It was also used in cappuccinos. Its flesh can also be dried to make durian chips. Aside from its edible contributions to food, the Durian also has medicinal and nutritional aids to the society. It has been discovered that the fruit is high in sugar, potassium, Vitamin C, fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The juice extracted from its leaves has also been used as ointments to the head of patients with fevers. The roots can also be boiled in water and drink to stop fevers. It can also be used as poultice, a soft mass applied to irritated or inflamed skin. The Durian was called as the King of the Fruits because of its tough image and thorns and its overwhelming odor.