The Battle of Bataan

    Japan’s stronghold in the Philippines was vital to the defense of their Southeast Asian flank. Because of this it was where they concentrated their forces which resulted in the most severe period of the Imperial’s invasion in World War II of the Philippines-the Battle of Bataan.  It is also written down in history as the largest surrender of the United States since the US Civil War.
    On the 7th of December 1941 the same day that Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan, U.S Philippine headquarters, naval and base camps in Zambales, Manila, Pampanga and Cavite were pounded by aircrafts based in Taiwan. The scattered remnants of the American forces tried to fight back in a struggle to seize airfields in Luzon to stop the Japanese air forces from landing but to no avail. They have also attacked Japanese ships bordered in Luzon. Nevertheless it did not delay the Japanese invasion. The Japanese Army increased their dominance when they neutralized the US bases in Philippines. They have gained for themselves air and naval fields taken from the US army for them to use and empower their invasion.
    When the Japanese gained their supremacy in the air and naval bases, they started their massive assault on the US army’s line of defense on the shores called the beachheads. The beachheads were pushed back by the invaders. As General MacArthur realized that their strategy has failed he resorted to what they called the War Plan Orange-3 wherein the main goal is to focus on the defense of Bataan and Corregidor, the central plain in the island of Luzon. They were to retreat in a delaying manner towards Bataan and regroup there with all their forces and fight Japanese invaders for 6 months assuming that after that time relief and back up would get there from the United States. They were hopeful that by delaying the Japanese invasion by regrouping in Bataan it will distort the plans of the Japanese Imperial army and also give the United States ample time to prepare their Fleet with power and arrive at Bataan to the rescue. Little did they know that the US Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor was already crippled. 
    On December 22, 1941, the Philippine Army troops who were defending the beaches of Luzon were defeated. And in order to deceive their advancing enemies on the exact location of their major defense positions in the Bataan peninsula, the Americans placed one line of defense in Layac to fight and delay their enemies. It was where the Japanese and American soldiers met for the first time in WWII. The battles focused on delaying the Japanese army in order for MacArthur’s men to withdraw towards the Batan defense base went on from January 1-5, 1942. 
    The Japanese Imperial Army persisted in their advancement towards Bataan and Corregidor for three months resulting in four major battles written in history.  The first of these battles was called The Stand. The stand was mainly the battle of the defense of the Americans and Filipinos of the Abucay-Mauban line. It is composed of two defensive lines located across the Bataan peninsula. The Mauban line was located on the western side and the Abucay on the eastern. The Stand was a battle of night raids, hand to hand combats and infiltrations between Japan and the Philippine-American Army. The fight started on January 9 and ended on January 22, 1942 resulting in the defeat and abandonment of the Abucay-Mauban Line.
    The second battle was a brief one. It is called the Battle of Trail 2. It has happened 4days after The Stand. Trail 2 was the line of defense hastily organized by General Bluemel which was successful in preventing the withdrawing US and Filipino from a major wipeout by the Japanese troops. The Japanese in their pursuit has found a gap to attack the withdrawing army with but was repelled in time by the trail2 line of defense.
    The third Battle was called the Battle of Pockets after the intentions of the Japanese army to pocket their areas of defense. After the battle of Trail2 Japanese troops managed still to get through using other routes and gaps in the withdrawing army.  The battle was marked by Capt. Santos, 1st Division’s actions which outsmarted and countered the strategies of the Japanese troops. He was nicknamed the “hero of pockets” for this and was promoted as major. The battle lasted from January 23 to February 22. On February 8, General Homma tried to order his men to stop their offensive operations seeing that they were getting closer to defeat but it was too late because most of the other divisions were already in contact with their enemies. The battle resulted in the USAFFE’s re-occupation of most positions that were taken from them by the Japanese Imperial Army. The Japanese had not yet been defeated but it was their turn to withdraw their forces.
    Meanwhile, on the west side of the Southern coast of Bataan, Japanese troops and USAFFE met on a battle known as the Battle of Points. The fighting lasted from January 23 to February 13, 1942. It was a remarkable battle because of the 2000 Japanese troops deployed there, only 43 made it alive and wounded. In that battle sailors were ordered to make noises and wear colorful uniforms in order to tempt the Japanese troops to shoot at them. This strategy revealed the hiding positions of the Japanese in the trees where the USAFFE army attacked them.
    General MacArthur with family and staff officers left Corregidor on March 12 , 1942. He went to Mindanao and from there flew to Australia where he made his famous promise “ I Shall Return” to the Filipinos. Because of this, the USAFFE changed its name to USFIP( US Forces in the Philippines) commanded by Lt.Gen. Wainwright IV.
    The second attack of the Japanese Imperial Army on Bataan then began. With the intention of completely destroying the American strongholds, Japanese General Headquarters sent more troops, aircrafts and artilleries. With only the capture of Bataan as their campaign, the Japanese forces arrived and backed the forces of General Homma. They aimed straight for Bataan and charged the defense lines of Americans and Filipinos ranks after ranks. This final assault bombarded the USFIP bases, neutralized I Corps and II Corps and destroyed communications between the commanders of the Bataan base and their lines of Defense. On April 6, the main defense of Bataan has collapsed and refugees started filling all roads. Some soldiers were even seen fleeing along with them. April 8 then marked the end of resistance for the commander on Bataan, Gen. King. He proposed for capitulation and on April 9, 1942 he met and negotiated with Maj. Gen. Kameichiro Nagano which lasted for hours and ended in the announcement of the surrender of the weary and embattled alliance of the Americans and the Filipinos thus, marking the Falling of Bataan in history.
    The Allied forces then, with no more strength to fight back were forcibly ordered by the Japanese Imperial Army on the famous Death March to transfer them from Bataan to Camp O'Donnell and be locked as prisoners of war. Approximately 75,000 soldiers marched on foot the 128km distance resulting in the death of about 10,000 soldiers. Besides that, what makes the Battle of Bataan famous is the amazing teamwork and camaraderie which the Americans and Filipinos applied in their battle against the Japanese army.

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    Marriage is something that requires a good amount of preparation. It is actually one of the biggest events or occasions in any family. It is also a special family gathering that often illuminates joy, prosperity and the union of two families. For women it is one of the most awaited part of being a woman next to becoming a mother. Since it is important to plan everything to make it really special and memorable, setting a date is such a wonderful task. In weddings, the month of June appears to be the favorite, but why?     When someone is getting married during the month of June, it is as if that wedding is sure to be extra special. Being a June bride is quite in demand for so many people that it already became a norm. But what’s really special about having your wedding on this particular month? In early years people are driven by their beliefs in gods and goddesses. According to Roman Mythology, the word or the month June is actually derived from Roman goddess of Marriage, Juno. It is as if the marriage will become really fruitful and strong because it has the blessings of that particular God who keeps or guards on marriages.      Another thing is that during the medieval period, people will only take a bath once a year. They call it the annual bath. Although it may sound gross but it’s actually true. The annual bath usually falls between the month of May and June. Most women then decided to be wed on June so that they still look fresh and they don’t have to worry about body odor. The use of bouquets were actually designed to hide that unpleasant smell they got because they only bathe once a year.     In a more practical view, other couples would prefer to be wed on the month of June thinking that they could conceive right after the wedding. The child will then be born on the month of March which is very much ideal for a child when he or she starts to go to school. Since the start of classes is on June, the child will then be fit for his or her age to enroll. The child will not be too young or too old for his or her level then.  
    The biggest mall owners and developers of the Philippines is the SM Prime Holdings. They are the ones who own and developed the SM Mall of Asia which is the third largest in all of Asia. The Mall of Asia ranks as the World’s 4th largest mall having approximately 390,000 square meters by 407,101 square meters in total area. It is located near the Manila Bay and SM Central Park at Pasay City of the Philippines. With its large size come also a large number of people visiting it every day with an average of 200,000. The Mall of Asia is the Philippine’s largest mall until in 2006 when it became the 2nd after the SM City North EDSA’s redevelopment.     The Mall has a vicinity of 19.5 hectares of land with 390,194 square meters of floor area. It has four buildings with walkways interconnecting them. These building consist mainly of the parking buildings (one in the north and another at the south), the entertainment and the main mall. The latter mall then consists of shopping establishments and restaurants including the food court. The entertainment mall on the other hand is mostly made up of two-story complexes usually open-air. It is built facing the Manila Bay. Finally the north and south parking buildings are designated on the south and northern areas of the Mall. The south is located at the Department Store while the North at the SM Hypermarket. Each building has 2,500 parking spaces. Visitors of the Mall of Asia are welcomed by a large globe made of framed steel with an LED display of a Globamaze.     The mall consists of branches of stores which are mostly found in other SM Malls.Aside from that MOA also has 4 other theaters of various kinds. The Director’s Club Theater is used for intimate screenings. The Premiere and CenterStage Cinemas on the other hand is utilized to facilitate live concerts and theatricals. But the San Miguel-Coca-Cola IMAX theatre is the biggest theater in the Mall and is also considered one of the tops in the world.     Another one of the attractions that MOA has is its large skating rink which has an Olympic size of 60x30 meters. Visitors could also enroll at training programs for figure skating and hockey. In 2007 SkateAsia competitions was held at the MOA which was a first in the history of Philippines to host an international event. Aside from these competitions the music hall beside the sea has also hosted singing competitions and concerts.     The Mall of Asia has so many features coming along with its great size. What makes it unique from other malls is that it has a tram which could accommodate 20 people. It also has a Ferry Terminal which saves tourists an hour of time going to Cavite. Other famous attraction of the mall is the SM by the Bay beside the sea (which used to be a place called the Baywalk), the SMX Convention Center (largest in the Philippines) and the MOA Asia Arena which is located at the MOA complex.
    With today’s latest inventions and discoveries, it’s hard to tell what science cannot do. Mankind surely would benefit from all of these researches and breakthroughs especially when it comes to the medical field. Humans are really taking a good shot in looking for answers or cure to life threatening diseases and even ways on how to lengthen the human life. One of the most controversial medical proposals ever made for the 2017 is the head transplant procedure.     Although the idea of head transplant started few years ago, it is expected to happen later this year or early on next year. Doctors behind this procedure were composed of a team of neurosurgeons headed by Sergio Canavero. Aside from the team he is also working in collaboration with another neurosurgeon from Harbin Medical University of China, Xiaoping Ren.      The head transplant procedure made in rodents was reportedly successful. According to the neurosurgeons, it required them to use three rodents to carry out the procedure. One rodent’s head was transferred to another rodent. The last rodent was then used as to supply blood during the procedure. Positive results were taken and that the transplanted head perfectly work and showed normal brain activity while being attached to a larger rodent.     The procedure was also tested in other animals aside from rats, such as monkeys and rabbits. This was also done in humans using corpses. According to Dr. Canavero, all procedures carried out promising and feasible results. The surgeon is making sure that the human head transplant will successfully happen later this year. They already have chosen the persons who will undergo such procedure but to choose not to reveal the identity of the persons involved. The only known detail is that they came from China.      Hearing this kind of information, will it ever happen and is it really ethical to conduct such procedure on humans. Although several organ transplants were already done in the history, this one is somewhat an exemption. Several groups were not in favor with the vision of the Italian Surgeon because he personally announced and release journals about this procedure without even consulting the American Association for Neurological Surgeons. Even the president of the association condemned him for conducting such procedure which should first undergo to series of assessment before publishing it.     Dr canavero and his team was able to carry out the procedure without any delay because they were financially supported by several groups who share the same visions with them. The mere idea of this method is purely morbid and it’s quite surprising how this neurosurgeon is able to make it happen in no time without any restraint.      How far can science actually go? Although doing this could be beneficial to humans, it is selectively beneficial because not all will benefit from this. There are already cases of organ trafficking, think of how deadly this can actually go?  
    The primary instincts of humans is to survive. However aside from the goal of surviving humans are also born to appreciate art. Although art may seem not a necessity because a human being can survive without it, art is something that makes a person able to survive while staying sane. Art is not limited to paintings or drawings, music is considered as an art and even language. Humans are born to be artistic creatures and it is exciting to know that art is limitless and it can never be stopped. It is immortal and it will always be. One of the ultimate representation of art is having a tattoo. But is tattoo a form or art and expression or it is just a form of style?     Getting inked isn’t simple as it seems. Your body will become the perfect canvas for this art, thus it is important to carefully think about your purpose and the design that you wished to have. Also the pain while getting inked is not a joke. And, tattoo artists need to be very precise when they are doing their job. It is why tattoo artists deserve such high respect among other artists.      While many people could not understand why some would want to “stain” their bodies like they always think of, having a tattoo constitute to something deeper than just a fashion statement. It is quite hard to be judged once you have tattoos in your body. The society has this idea that once you have one in your body you are either an ex-convict, drug addict, a member of a gang, a prostitute and so much more. People with tattoos were even branded not to have good jobs. Tattoos are often objectified as a good for nothing art.      Having a tattoo is not equivalent to committing a crime but some people don’t make any distinction to it. People should then realize that art can take different forms, if they learned to appreciate music then tattoos deserve that chance too.      People who would want to get inked are ordinary people with bigger appreciation for art. They are the ones who are not afraid to be judged by other people. They are not ashamed of expressing who they are and they are proud of having it inked on their bodies. Having a tattoo does not mean you are destroying your body. How come it become destructive when it is in fact what your heart desires?   
    Accidents do happen and no one knows when and how it occurs. As pet owners, there are risks that you should be aware of upon taking the responsibility of deciding to raise a dog. No matter how preventive you are accidents can always happen to anyone. The best way to counter it is to be open-minded and be prepared of what are the things that should be done in case of emergency.     One of the greatest risks of having a pet is accidental dog bites. Dogs have fangs and are capable of causing wounds to its victims. Dog bites are often feared of because of rabies. No matter how small the bite is, rabies can still exist and perhaps it can put a person’s life into great danger.       Dogs don’t usually bite especially if they are well taken care of. Once you give them the right amount of food, exercise and a quiet place to sleep they are all good for the day. However unwanted instances occur and it can trigger dogs to bite especially when they are anxious about something. Dogs hate intruders and that what makes them good guards for your homes. However there are some dogs who weren’t trained enough to distinguish good guys from the bad ones and so accidents happen.      When an accident occurs, it is better to be prepared and have a presence of mind. The first thing that you need to do in case your dog has bitten someone or it caused you wounds is to apply first aid. First aid includes the following:         1.    Locate all the areas affected by the bite. Make sure that you have seen every scratches and wounds in your body so that it can be treated properly.         2.    In case of bleeding use a clean towel for it to stop.         3.    Keep the affected area in an elevated position. If you have been bitten in your logs, try to elevate it by using a chair.         4.    With the use of running water and soap, carefully wash the affected area. Wash it thoroughly to make sure that the wound has been totally cleaned.         5.    Once you are sure that you have thoroughly cleaned the wound, apply antibiotic ointment on the affected area to prevent it from getting infected.         6.    Put a sterile bandage on the wound, this will keep the wound covered and safe from foreign objects that may complicate it.     Visit the vet or a medical doctor right after applying first aid. It is not enough to rely on first aid treatments only because it does not guarantee your safety after the bite. Doctors would then ask you about the dog and its medical records if there are any. It is best for the dog owner to accompany the person bitten and take responsibility of the accident since it is included in RA 9482 or the Anti-Rabies Act of the Philippines. The law which states that in case of dog bites, the owner should take full responsibility of the accident by accompanying the victim and paying for all the medical expenses in the treatment process. Failure to comply these provisions must face certain sanctions.  

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    When you don’t have sweet tooth it is hard to find snacks that can match your low tolerance for sugar. Almost all snacks were made out of sugar, chocolates and other forms of sweeteners. It is the main reason why Skittles stands out from the rest of the group. It is a sweet yet sour candy that comes in a bright rainbow colors. But all of a sudden Skittles became really dull and lost all that rainbow colors.     In an official stamen made by Skittles, they decided to have a different packaging for intended for the entire month of June. As practiced June is the month dedicated for the LGBT community. The LGBT community has the rainbow to represent them because they acknowledged that they are composed of different genders thus constitutes not just a single color but of different colors.      Since the Skittles and the LGBT community share the same kind of color representation, Skittles gladly gave way to the LGBT community. According to them, although the share the same symbol, one has to stand out and celebrate their existence and they give it whole heartedly to the LGBT group.      This is such a remarkable and thoughtful move for Skittles. Although they were branded and known because of their color, they were not afraid to give way to celebrate a significant event for some people. Consumers in return have shown appreciation to what the company did. Their customers admired their sensitive and immediate decision to honor the LGBT community.     Changing brand packaging is a bit risky when it comes to sales and market. Well known and established companies see to it that when they have to change or modify their packaging it needs to be somehow close to the previous design. It is because people shop out of familiarity. When you change your packaging into a totally different concept, chances are your consumers will not be able to recognize your products anymore.      However it is different with the case of Skittles. They dared to risk their sales and their brand in order to commemorate an event. With this making rounds in the internet, Skittles is rest assured that their customers would still remain loyal to them.   
    Birth order has been known to have a significant influence on a person’s personality. In fact a prominent and well known psychologist coined the theory about birth order. It was Alfred Adler’s work that lead other psychologists to consider how such event can partly affect and help in predicting a person’s overall personality.     In his theory of birth order however, a specific position have shown great crisis in terms of dealing with the demands of that particular order. The middle child is considered to be someone who is in between the eldest and the youngest child being born. The middle child has an elder sibling to compete with in terms of achievement and trust from parents, as well as control over the other siblings. At the same time the middle child needs to face the unfortunate reality that although he or she had enjoyed a moment of being the youngest it did not last long prior to the birth of a sibling. Now the youngest child enjoys all the attention and care that was supposedly given to the middle child.     It is quite a difficult task to stay on the middle. The eldest becomes busy with responsibilities entrusted by the parents, thus the eldest won’t mind not being their parents’ favorite because he or she was given a task or responsibility that needs to be fulfilled. In a way, the eldest child feels empowerment and develops control over his or her younger siblings. As a result, a middle child develop unique character traits in order to cope with the crisis of being caught in the middle. Commonly, they become secretive in nature. They naturally have high trust issues. The always strive to please everybody so that they can be noticed by their parents.      By staying in the middle, the child becomes a good mediator. After all it is an advantage to be on the both sides. It is like being the best of both worlds. The term middle child syndrome was a sort of adaptation to the crisis that child who falls under that particular order has to face. It’s considered a syndrome for some because most of the time middle kids have the same sentiments with one another.      Although Alfred Adler’s theory were postulated years ago it is still present up to this point. Certain modern psychologists have adopted his concept of birth order and how it pays a crucial role in the development of one’s personality.  
    If you are reading this then you are most likely a middle child who is looking for confirmation that you really feel special because of your controversial birth order. Although less attention is given to middle children during child rearing, middle children became an interesting target for research because of their complicated situation. Children who were born on such order have great qualities especially when it comes to coping and socialization. But what are the most common traits that makes up a middle child? Here is the list: 1.    A part of you will always feel that nobody cares about you – it is the most fundamental feeling that the middle children share. It starts when you just don’t know who or what you should be. The parents are busy making your older sibling responsible and at the same time they are busy looking after and enjoying your younger sibling.  2.    You were used to being alone but you are not even sad about it – although not all middle children are introverts, there is a strong force that pushes a middle child to enjoy a moment of himself or herself to meditate or to think of plans especially when a decision has to be made.  3.     You talk to yourself vocally – although it wasn’t intentional, most middle kids were not given the chance to voice out their opinion because it is the job of the older sibling and such decisions are actually made for the benefit of the youngest child. In a way, middle children have been used to voice out their thoughts to their selves alone. They do it because they actually value listening to opinion since they weren’t given that chance when they were young. 4.     You always think that you are not your parents’ favorite – parental biases will always take place no matter how many times parents say that they don’t have favoritism among their children. Meanwhile, the middles would voluntarily take the place of not being the favorite child or the less appreciated one because they have been used to sacrifice  ever since they became a middle child. 5.    It always comes to you to consider other people’s feelings before you make any decision – although this may sound too kind this is actually true for almost all middle kids. Since they were used to get caught in the middle they learned how it feels to be on top of someone and at the same time find themselves in the bottom.  6.     You feel a bit distant and secretive to your own family – this is a thing that only middle children could understand. It may sound rebellious but it is not. Since they were used being left behind or that their opinions don’t really matter at all, they become cautious in opening up or trusting a family member.     
    The primary instincts of humans is to survive. However aside from the goal of surviving humans are also born to appreciate art. Although art may seem not a necessity because a human being can survive without it, art is something that makes a person able to survive while staying sane. Art is not limited to paintings or drawings, music is considered as an art and even language. Humans are born to be artistic creatures and it is exciting to know that art is limitless and it can never be stopped. It is immortal and it will always be. One of the ultimate representation of art is having a tattoo. But is tattoo a form or art and expression or it is just a form of style?     Getting inked isn’t simple as it seems. Your body will become the perfect canvas for this art, thus it is important to carefully think about your purpose and the design that you wished to have. Also the pain while getting inked is not a joke. And, tattoo artists need to be very precise when they are doing their job. It is why tattoo artists deserve such high respect among other artists.      While many people could not understand why some would want to “stain” their bodies like they always think of, having a tattoo constitute to something deeper than just a fashion statement. It is quite hard to be judged once you have tattoos in your body. The society has this idea that once you have one in your body you are either an ex-convict, drug addict, a member of a gang, a prostitute and so much more. People with tattoos were even branded not to have good jobs. Tattoos are often objectified as a good for nothing art.      Having a tattoo is not equivalent to committing a crime but some people don’t make any distinction to it. People should then realize that art can take different forms, if they learned to appreciate music then tattoos deserve that chance too.      People who would want to get inked are ordinary people with bigger appreciation for art. They are the ones who are not afraid to be judged by other people. They are not ashamed of expressing who they are and they are proud of having it inked on their bodies. Having a tattoo does not mean you are destroying your body. How come it become destructive when it is in fact what your heart desires?   
    There are several ways to determine a person’s capability. A person can be judged through educational attainment, amount of salary or savings that that person has and many more. But a person’s personality is something which makes that particular person different from any other. In general personality is the overall qualities of a person. It includes his or her coping mechanisms, attitude to a particular situation, beliefs, aspiration, his or her character and even temperament. But how does a person’s personality develop? Is it something inborn, or is personality made? According to Psychology there are several things that can affect and are responsible in shaping a person’s personality such as birth order.      The relevance of birth order to personality was first proposed by Alfred Adler. According to him, birth order determines or guides a person’s personality because of a made up expectation to a child even before he or she learns to behave on things. Children are already expected to behave into a particular list things because it has been the norm of the society.     The birth order theory includes the first born, second born, middle, and the last born or as the only child. According to Adler the following are the shaped personalities according to birth order:     First Born – Tends to become achievers, controlling, and reliable, independent, perfectionist, structured and cautious. These traits are often associated with child rearing, since the first born are always entrusted or tasked to look after their younger siblings. And as the first born grows older, it will play a huge part in the development of personality.     Middle Child – We often hear about middle child syndrome which describes the crisis of being in between an older and a younger sibling. The birth order triggers the middle child to feel less wanted because the first born is entrusted with the responsibility and then the youngest becomes the favorite. Middle children tend to become secretive, short tempered, and prone to become rebellious but are good when it comes to socializing with other people.      Youngest – The youngest child in the family is considered to be the favorite of all. Although parents would try to give equal treatment to their children, it is the youngest child who will get all the attention and care. With the abundance of love and attention the youngest kids can become manipulative, self-centered, dependent, attention seeker but at the same time they are outgoing, they are good in dealing emotions and are often relaxed.