The Battle of Bataan

    Japan’s stronghold in the Philippines was vital to the defense of their Southeast Asian flank. Because of this it was where they concentrated their forces which resulted in the most severe period of the Imperial’s invasion in World War II of the Philippines-the Battle of Bataan.  It is also written down in history as the largest surrender of the United States since the US Civil War.
    On the 7th of December 1941 the same day that Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan, U.S Philippine headquarters, naval and base camps in Zambales, Manila, Pampanga and Cavite were pounded by aircrafts based in Taiwan. The scattered remnants of the American forces tried to fight back in a struggle to seize airfields in Luzon to stop the Japanese air forces from landing but to no avail. They have also attacked Japanese ships bordered in Luzon. Nevertheless it did not delay the Japanese invasion. The Japanese Army increased their dominance when they neutralized the US bases in Philippines. They have gained for themselves air and naval fields taken from the US army for them to use and empower their invasion.
    When the Japanese gained their supremacy in the air and naval bases, they started their massive assault on the US army’s line of defense on the shores called the beachheads. The beachheads were pushed back by the invaders. As General MacArthur realized that their strategy has failed he resorted to what they called the War Plan Orange-3 wherein the main goal is to focus on the defense of Bataan and Corregidor, the central plain in the island of Luzon. They were to retreat in a delaying manner towards Bataan and regroup there with all their forces and fight Japanese invaders for 6 months assuming that after that time relief and back up would get there from the United States. They were hopeful that by delaying the Japanese invasion by regrouping in Bataan it will distort the plans of the Japanese Imperial army and also give the United States ample time to prepare their Fleet with power and arrive at Bataan to the rescue. Little did they know that the US Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor was already crippled. 
    On December 22, 1941, the Philippine Army troops who were defending the beaches of Luzon were defeated. And in order to deceive their advancing enemies on the exact location of their major defense positions in the Bataan peninsula, the Americans placed one line of defense in Layac to fight and delay their enemies. It was where the Japanese and American soldiers met for the first time in WWII. The battles focused on delaying the Japanese army in order for MacArthur’s men to withdraw towards the Batan defense base went on from January 1-5, 1942. 
    The Japanese Imperial Army persisted in their advancement towards Bataan and Corregidor for three months resulting in four major battles written in history.  The first of these battles was called The Stand. The stand was mainly the battle of the defense of the Americans and Filipinos of the Abucay-Mauban line. It is composed of two defensive lines located across the Bataan peninsula. The Mauban line was located on the western side and the Abucay on the eastern. The Stand was a battle of night raids, hand to hand combats and infiltrations between Japan and the Philippine-American Army. The fight started on January 9 and ended on January 22, 1942 resulting in the defeat and abandonment of the Abucay-Mauban Line.
    The second battle was a brief one. It is called the Battle of Trail 2. It has happened 4days after The Stand. Trail 2 was the line of defense hastily organized by General Bluemel which was successful in preventing the withdrawing US and Filipino from a major wipeout by the Japanese troops. The Japanese in their pursuit has found a gap to attack the withdrawing army with but was repelled in time by the trail2 line of defense.
    The third Battle was called the Battle of Pockets after the intentions of the Japanese army to pocket their areas of defense. After the battle of Trail2 Japanese troops managed still to get through using other routes and gaps in the withdrawing army.  The battle was marked by Capt. Santos, 1st Division’s actions which outsmarted and countered the strategies of the Japanese troops. He was nicknamed the “hero of pockets” for this and was promoted as major. The battle lasted from January 23 to February 22. On February 8, General Homma tried to order his men to stop their offensive operations seeing that they were getting closer to defeat but it was too late because most of the other divisions were already in contact with their enemies. The battle resulted in the USAFFE’s re-occupation of most positions that were taken from them by the Japanese Imperial Army. The Japanese had not yet been defeated but it was their turn to withdraw their forces.
    Meanwhile, on the west side of the Southern coast of Bataan, Japanese troops and USAFFE met on a battle known as the Battle of Points. The fighting lasted from January 23 to February 13, 1942. It was a remarkable battle because of the 2000 Japanese troops deployed there, only 43 made it alive and wounded. In that battle sailors were ordered to make noises and wear colorful uniforms in order to tempt the Japanese troops to shoot at them. This strategy revealed the hiding positions of the Japanese in the trees where the USAFFE army attacked them.
    General MacArthur with family and staff officers left Corregidor on March 12 , 1942. He went to Mindanao and from there flew to Australia where he made his famous promise “ I Shall Return” to the Filipinos. Because of this, the USAFFE changed its name to USFIP( US Forces in the Philippines) commanded by Lt.Gen. Wainwright IV.
    The second attack of the Japanese Imperial Army on Bataan then began. With the intention of completely destroying the American strongholds, Japanese General Headquarters sent more troops, aircrafts and artilleries. With only the capture of Bataan as their campaign, the Japanese forces arrived and backed the forces of General Homma. They aimed straight for Bataan and charged the defense lines of Americans and Filipinos ranks after ranks. This final assault bombarded the USFIP bases, neutralized I Corps and II Corps and destroyed communications between the commanders of the Bataan base and their lines of Defense. On April 6, the main defense of Bataan has collapsed and refugees started filling all roads. Some soldiers were even seen fleeing along with them. April 8 then marked the end of resistance for the commander on Bataan, Gen. King. He proposed for capitulation and on April 9, 1942 he met and negotiated with Maj. Gen. Kameichiro Nagano which lasted for hours and ended in the announcement of the surrender of the weary and embattled alliance of the Americans and the Filipinos thus, marking the Falling of Bataan in history.
    The Allied forces then, with no more strength to fight back were forcibly ordered by the Japanese Imperial Army on the famous Death March to transfer them from Bataan to Camp O'Donnell and be locked as prisoners of war. Approximately 75,000 soldiers marched on foot the 128km distance resulting in the death of about 10,000 soldiers. Besides that, what makes the Battle of Bataan famous is the amazing teamwork and camaraderie which the Americans and Filipinos applied in their battle against the Japanese army.

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Saturday, September 10, 2016 - 09:16:24 PM
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    Nowadays, Filipinos are moving up to greater heights in the realm of e-commerce and transitioning from the world of “brick and mortar” to “click and order” has never been this quicker. The ultimate appeals and benefits to online shopping are in its convenience (with just a quick click right at the comforts of your home, you could buy or sell with ease), the large variety and selection of items, the speed or immediacy of orders, and the ability to keep updated and be the first in getting amazing discounts! We, Pinoys, have a great knack at hunting out good deals. Here are 5 among the best and most popular buying sites in the Philippines: 1.    eBay Philippines An e-commerce veteran of almost 22 years, with 1 million Facebook likes and more than 241 million registered members in its community, eBay is an international market where you can trade literally and practically anything. Its Philippine charter is chuck-full of categories which could meet the wants and needs of the Filipinos.   2.    Goods.ph  As its namesake, the main intent of Goods.ph was simply help people not to go through the hassle of going outside to buy but let them buy any kind of “goods”, even the groceries. With more than 1.2 million Facebook page likes, the site offers all sorts of bargains and discounts.     3.    Metro Deal Manila  Founded in 2010, with a total of 1.4 million Facebook page likes, MetroDeal Manila is a daily deal site which sells from fashion accessories and home appliances, to electronics and beauty products, and even tour packages.   4.    OLX Philppines  Founded in 2006, with more than 4 million Facebook page likes, OLX Philippines is known for having the biggest brand for online classifieds having scoured over 100 countries and translated into 40 languages. Within seconds, you can easily post an ad for free at the ease of your phone.   5.    Lazada Philippines  With a whopping total of more than 16.9 million Facebook page likes, Lazada is well on its way of becoming the #1 e-shopping site in the Philippines. It is like everywhere! Known for its COD or Cash-On-Delivery payment method, the site offers 24/7, quick, hassle-free, effortless, affordable and secure delivery in a selection of over 5 million products of top brands.  
     The birth of the internet has opened a lot of opportunities for the entire mankind. With its presence long distance communication is no longer a problem. You can synchronized things in a real-time manner regardless of your distance from one person or place as long as both of you are connected in the internet. The internet became a place for leisure since Social Medias became available. Majority of the people stays connected in the internet because of social media. Everybody wants to be part of the social media world so they could share their thoughts, pictures and so much more.      Although the internet and social media has indeed brought several positive changes to the lives of the people there are also negative things that may happen to a person because of it. It has been a norm to post updates about one’s self in social media. It is as if it is the way to keep the people around you updated with what are the things that are actually happening in your life, be it in your career or work, personal life and so much more. There is actually nothing wrong about it if you know how to manipulate your privacy settings, however what if you really intended to post things in public so that a larger audience can view it?     Sometimes people may unconsciously risk their own safety while using social media. Best examples are pre-school teachers. As a teacher, you would want to update the parents of your kids about your activities in school, so you post pictures of them on Facebook or Twitter. You choose the public setting so the parents could instantly share your posts about the kids without thinking that this could lead to something serious like child abduction or kidnapping.     When you are posting the photos of your kids make sure to blur their faces because this can be a great opportunity for those who would want to make money out of these children. They will also make use of the social media to look for possible targets just by simply monitoring the pictures, names, links and even addresses of the kids. The thing about preschoolers is that they are usually the primary target of kidnappers because of their poor judgment and weak resistance to attack. Toddlers and preschoolers can be easily lured by child abductors because of their young age. The lesser the force they apply the better because it becomes less obvious that they are already doing a crime.      The best way to eliminate the risk of child abduction is to refrain from posting pictures in social media. The best way for the parents and the teachers to communicate about the development of a particular child is to see each other in the office or in school. In such manner the parents will be able to ask so much more and become updated of their child’s performance without risking their safety.   
    Basically, the Aswang is a Filipino folklore mythical creature. According to myths it has a vampire-like nature. It has other names such as the “wak-wak” and “tik-tik”. It has been subject to and a hopeless explanation to so many unsolved stories in the Philippines. Especially in the 16th century, even the Spanish colonists has noticed that it was the Aswang which terrified the Filipinos most. It is known in the entire country and feared except for the Ilocos regions where the myth does not have an existing story to be told. The most popular regions where the Aswang myth is found is in places like Capiz, Negros, Aklan, Antique, Masbate and Bohol.      The term Aswang is generally used to define all kinds of vampires, monsters and witches. Originally it was used as a term for a were-dog myth. Dog in Tagalog is Aso where the name takes its origins. The were-dog myth used to be an easter of the dead which consumes cadavers and replaces the bodies with banana trunks. The stories on Aswang vary depending on the region or individual in the country. But it is generally refered to a female.     But the real origin of the Aswang myth could be found in the ancient times before modern science and medicine came to the Philippines. Maladies and miscarriages that could not be explained properly were always attributed as the workings of an Aswang. But in the present times, the myth changed its purposes and uses. Now it is used as entertainment and also by parents to their children as a style of disciplining. For example a Filipino mother would tell their child aswang stories to stop them from staying away from home late at night.     True that it is a well-known myth in the entire country, the myth though is most popular in the Visayas especially that of Capiz. It is Capiz which is frequently targeted by tabloids as a place where various monsters and supernatural beings lived such as tikbalangs(centaurs) and manananggals. A reason for that may be because almost all of the people living in Capiz are superstitiously inclined.     Some people believe that Aswangs appear not only in places but during seasons of high spiritual significance. Such is the example of Southern Luzon where Antipolo is superstitiously believed to have many events of Aswang occurences during the Holy Week. The belief explains that this happens in the three days when Christ was dead. But although there are superstitious folks in the country there are also some that highly argues that the Aswang might be creatures that belong to the cryptozoology, a science that deals with studying animals that hasn’t been proven to exist yet. Some examples of cryptozoologic animals are dinosaurs and the big foots.     Research on the Aswang has produced so many different descriptions. But there are on the other hand numerous commodities in all the stories. The stories commonly has it that Aswangs are people who live ordinary lives. They are usually shy and quiet people. But at night they would turn into different creatures and animals such as cats, dogs or pigs. Stories also commonly show that Aswangs eat fetuses, little children and the hearts of people. Finally, they have been commonly described as robbers of cadavers and always in the habit of replacing the stolen bodies with wood, tree trunks or materials made from plants.     The mystery of the Aswang has been provided with scientific, religious and historical explanations. Others believe in their existence while others do not. But all the same it remains as one of the most influential literatures in the Filipino culture.
    The Tabon Caves are set in Lipuun Point Reservation in Palawan. It is a 138-hectare of island which is linked to Palawan’s mainland by a forest. They are groups of caves found in the northern parts of the Quezon municipality in Palawan province on Palawan Island. The name of the caves was taken from the Tabon Scrubfowl, a bird with a large foot which lays eggs in the cave. South of the Tabon Caves is the town proper of Quezon. On the west they are bordered by Barangay Panitian. Meanwhile, the South China Sea is located on the north and eastern parts of these caves. Their mouths lay 33meters above sea level.     In the year 1962, researcher Dr. Robert B. Fox and his team found the skull of the Tabon man in one of the Tabon caves. It is reported that the remains were approximately 22-24,000 years old. The Tabon man belongs to the species of the Homo Sapien or better known as the intelligent and modern man. They have also found tools, jars, bones and jewelry which dates back fifty thousand years ago. These are the oldest remains ever found in the country. This discovery has indicated habitation 50,000 years ago while the limestone found in it is believed to date back to the Lower Middle Miocene Period which is equivalent to 25 million years back in human history. Ten years later, in April of 1972 the Lipuun Point Reservation became a Site Museum Reservation. It was also recognized as a priority site for the development of tourism of natural and culture heritage in 1991.      Because the oldest human remnant ever to be found in the Philippines, the Tabon man was found in the Tabon Cave, the caves gained the title of being the country’s Cradle of Civilization. It plays a very significant role in the discovery and knowledge of the history and heritage of Filipinos. According to the discoveries, the Tabon Caves is where one of the first habitants of the Philippines lived and was buried. The remains show that Tabon men lived in the cave. It says that they lived on small animals like bats and birds due to the small sizes of their stone tools. There were charcoals left from cooking fires.     The Guri Cave is the most important cave in the Tabon Cave complex because it is considered as the cave where the early people lived. These people lived earlier than the Tabon man, it was said. Archaeologists have found layers of soil inside which contained of garbage and a collection of marine shells left by the early people. It is estimated that their habituation dates back to 5000 and 2000 years B.C.     The Tabon Cave Complex is an attraction for both tourists and archaeologists. It contains vital information on the history and culture of the country’s heritage. It is the Philippine’s Cradle of Civilization. On the other hand, it provides a first-hand experience and a scenic view to visitors on one of the oldest abodes of ancient men.
    The City of Cagayan de Oro is also the capital of Misamis Oriental. It is also the regional center of Northern Mindanao. Tourists and travelers from time to time flock the city. Because of this, it is titled as the city of golden friendship. Ironically, before the peace, it went through a tiresome war that made its mark in the history of the Philippines.     For 276 years the Spanish Colonizers dominated the Philippines. But on the 10th of December 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed by the United States and Spain in Paris. In the treaty it was agreed that the country would handed over to the Americans in return for a payment. The amount paid to Spain by the Americans was 120,000,0000 dollars. In other words, Philippines was bought by the United States from Spain.     In Cagayan de Oro, the Americans’ arrival was much received with restiveness and hostility by the Kagay-anons. They did not agree to the occupation of the US. And so a revolutionary group called “ Tercios Revolucionarios” was created and organized by the people of Cagayan. Its main leaders were people who are prominent even in today’s times. These people included known names in Cagayan de Oro such as Apolinar Velez, Nicanor Capistrano, Roa Y. Racines, Tirso Neri, and Cayetano Pacana.     The prominent leaders of this organization purposefully trained and prepared the Kagay-anons mentally and physically. Their main goal was to resist and push back the Americans from entering their town. But there was a setback to their plans as they have realized. Their men had only bolos and some rifles as weapons to fight the Americans. But nevertheless, these were the men who fought in the famous April 7, 1900 battle and that of Macahambus.     The invasion of Cagayan de Oro by the Americans came on 31 March 1900. They first bombarded the town and burned the flag of Macabalan. The fighters of the Tercios Revolucionarios were already prepared and trained even before the invasion came. But they waited until April 7 to attack the Americans. Their army was headed by General Nicolas Capistrano. Originally, they were camped at Gagno plateau at Bukidnon which is located 9km from Cagayan.      The ringing of San Agustin Church’s bell was the go signal for them to attack the Americans when they arrived. The Revolucionarios attacked in a systematized wave. The first wave were men with bolos only as weapons. Then next to them were the riflemen. They were then followed by cavalrymen. Their main plan was to make a sneak attack on the American soldiers. But because some of the macheteros(men with bolos) shouted battle cries, their plan was foiled.     The Americans were quick to react to the battle cries of the natives carrying bolos and so there raged a battle between the well-armed Americans and the Revolucionarios. When Gen. Capistrano realized impending defeat, he ordered for a retreat. The most intense fighting happened in the town’s plaza, which is now called the Gaston Park. But the Kagay-anons stood no chance against the Americans. After an hour they were defeated and the remnants of the Revolucionarios were chased away from the city.     Even with so little hope of winning, the Revolucionarios fought with much valiance. But still they were defeated. When peace returned to Cagayan de Oro, Tirso Neri became its first Mayor. There he ordered the opening of Divisoria.

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