The Sandugo

    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.
    The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.
    The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored. 
    Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.
    The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.
    The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.

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The human body like any animal has its own unique smell similar to pheromones that animals release in certain period of time. Pheromones are like signal to attract other animals during mating season. It helps animals locate their future mates and establish territory. However eliciting a certain smell may not be that suitable for humans. We don’t need to give off smell to attract other humans because we are capable of communicating with each other. Having a certain kind of body odor is highly embarrassing since it can turn people away. Nobody likes to stay with someone with body odor. Every person has his or her own distinct smell due to diet, lifestyle and even genetics. The good thing is that it can be treated and staying fresh all day won’t be your problem at all. Others would turn to colognes, body mists, perfumes and the likes, thinking that it can help mask their smell. These products may not actually help because by mere masking body odor, it means it is still present in your system. Usually when the body warms up or sweats the stronger the odor. Body odor problems are actually caused by bacteria present in the body. They often love to live on the warm and sweaty areas of body such as the armpits.   Taking baths regularly. The best thing to fight body odor is to eliminate the source which is the bacteria. Taking a bath every day is one of the best ways to solve this problem. It cleanses the body from dirt, sweat and other forms of bacteria. It adds moisture to the kitchen which is needed in order for the skin to remain healthy. Observe proper hygiene. Aside from taking baths regularly, it is also important to use products that can help in maintaining your hygiene. It is best to use deodorant and soap with anti-bacterial formula. By doing so, you are assured that your body is protected from harmful causing agents. Observe your diet. The source of body odor is from the food you eat. It is actually possible to acquire body odor from constantly eating foods that have strong smell such as onions and other spices. Discuss it with your family. There are several cases of body odor caused by genetics. If you have someone in your family who have body odor problems, chances are you might also develop one. Also, it is advisable not to borrow clothes or use clothing from a person with body order since bacteria remains in clothes and can be transferred when worn by another person especially if such clothes were not washed and dried properly.
    A human being is a social animal. Regardless of the situation a person would always want to have someone to be with. Nobody wants to be left behind. However not all people are lucky enough to find their companions or best friends in life because of varied reasons. But who says only a human being can complete another human being? Dogs are great companions too and they have earned the title of being man’s best friend since time immemorial.      If you are thinking of having a dog and you don’t have any breed in particular to choose from it is best to have a rescue dog. A rescue dog is basically a dog which came from sanctuaries or those that were saved from being abandoned. These types of dogs have no definite breed at all. You might never able to trace its pedigree and its bloodline; however they are as special as those being commercialized in pet stores.      The best thing about choosing rescue dogs is that you are giving them the second chance to live a life that they have been wishing for. There are only few people who would choose to adopt dogs rather than shop. This only means that there are also only few dogs that would be given the chance to have their forever home. It is also heartbreaking to know that not all shelters practice the no-kill policy. When rescued dogs remain in the shelter for quite long already, they are euthanize or being put to sleep without even experiencing the joy of being part in a family.      Adopting a dog from shelters could be the best decision you can ever think of. If you are longing for a companion or a best friend, they are just perfect. These dogs have painful experiences in their past but they are still hopeful to find that special person who will prove to them that dogs are indeed man’s best friend.      By getting a rescue dog, you are helping organizations to continue their goals in putting an end to animal cruelty and animal neglect. If you are thinking that dogs that came from shelters are problematic dogs then you are wrong. Although most of them are strays, these dogs were given the medication they needed before they are released and are set for adoption. It is also a protocol for any shelter to spay and neuter every rescue dog under their facility. By doing this, dogs are protected from unplanned pregnancies and over population which then may result to neglect.     There are several animal welfare groups in the Philippines such as the Philippine Animal Rescue Team (http://www.philanimalrescue.org/) where you can finally meet your new best friend. Pay them a visit now; they are all waiting for you. 
    If you spend some of your free time scrolling your Facebook newsfeed you have probably came across with different exciting and intriguing make-ups deals that are way cheaper than its normal price. There are lots of make-up enthusiasts that will surely grab this kind of opportunity to hoard their favorite make-up essentials. However isn’t it quite intriguing and quite suspicious how come they are sold way cheaper compared to those sold in malls? If tax and building costs were the sole reason why these products are more affordable you should think twice and do the math.     You should be careful in shopping online, you should not watch out for scammers but as well as counterfeits. Yes, counterfeit make-ups actually exist. If a certain online seller claims that the items they sell are Singapore authentic, you should see this as a red sign. There is no such thing as Singapore Authentic. It goes the same with perfumes and other cosmetic stuff.     The horrible thing about these counterfeits is that, you will never know what chemical did the manufacturers used in creating those products. It can cause serious illness and other health problems. You indeed save a little by choosing the cheap ones, but upon getting sick, you will surely double your expenses for medicines.      According to some statements, such products can actually cause irritation in skin even during first use, especially for those who have sensitive skin. So just imagine using a fake eye shadow? Imagine the damage that it could actually bring to your eyes. It is never wise to support counterfeits products. Some people would just want to make money out of other people’s desire to be beautiful.      If you are really hooked with make-up and you think you can never survive without it, you better change your mind in choosing what products to use. There are indeed cheaper make-ups but are still authentic. Normally, the prices for these items are like 20% - 30% cheaper compared to those sold in malls. However counterfeits are like 80% -90% cheaper, so by this you should be alarmed already.
    When you don’t have sweet tooth it is hard to find snacks that can match your low tolerance for sugar. Almost all snacks were made out of sugar, chocolates and other forms of sweeteners. It is the main reason why Skittles stands out from the rest of the group. It is a sweet yet sour candy that comes in a bright rainbow colors. But all of a sudden Skittles became really dull and lost all that rainbow colors.     In an official stamen made by Skittles, they decided to have a different packaging for intended for the entire month of June. As practiced June is the month dedicated for the LGBT community. The LGBT community has the rainbow to represent them because they acknowledged that they are composed of different genders thus constitutes not just a single color but of different colors.      Since the Skittles and the LGBT community share the same kind of color representation, Skittles gladly gave way to the LGBT community. According to them, although the share the same symbol, one has to stand out and celebrate their existence and they give it whole heartedly to the LGBT group.      This is such a remarkable and thoughtful move for Skittles. Although they were branded and known because of their color, they were not afraid to give way to celebrate a significant event for some people. Consumers in return have shown appreciation to what the company did. Their customers admired their sensitive and immediate decision to honor the LGBT community.     Changing brand packaging is a bit risky when it comes to sales and market. Well known and established companies see to it that when they have to change or modify their packaging it needs to be somehow close to the previous design. It is because people shop out of familiarity. When you change your packaging into a totally different concept, chances are your consumers will not be able to recognize your products anymore.      However it is different with the case of Skittles. They dared to risk their sales and their brand in order to commemorate an event. With this making rounds in the internet, Skittles is rest assured that their customers would still remain loyal to them.   
    Society today has taught us that emotions, especially of the negative nature, should be suppressed or held back, thinking that it will lead us to less conflicts or avoid them all together. Yet studies have shown this shouldn’t be the case. In fact, the more you hold them back, the more unnatural and tense you’ll be. The human psyche is made up of so much more than the pursuit of joy, happiness and glee. Negative emotions – like anger, envy, sorrow, disgust, fear, etc. are all natural; they help us define the world we live in, act as buffers warning and safeguarding us from potential or present threats, and if just dealt with wisely, would help us cope and live a more balanced and fulfilling life. Constantly suppressing bad and troublesome thoughts is like running away and not really dealing with your present issues head-on. The bottled up emotions will then turn sour and ultimately toxic. Anger could turn into rage and hatred. Sorrow could turn into depression. Fears could turn into panic, or worse yet, phobias. You get the idea.       Recent studies have shown that suppressing toxic emotions could lead to cancer – particularly anger, hate, resentment and grief. Scientists have discovered that the rise of stress hormones like cortisol directly suppresses our immune systems to function properly. It’s like our bodies’ security system goes out of whack, and with our literal “bodyguards” not up to order, the normal cells will mutate and turn into cancer cells.     The studies have noted that most of the cancer patients had low anger scores, which means they either suppressed (consciously held back), repressed (unconsciously put in the back of their minds) and restrained themselves from expressing their anger. Follow-up studies, on the other hand, showed that survival rates of people who openly expressed their anger have doubled. If you’d like to read more about this in detail, I highly recommend you go to Alternative-Cancer-Care’s website.       Cancer, by definition, is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in our bodies that will then spread and invade healthy nearby tissues. In essence, they’re cells that don’t belong to your body but will try to destroy you. I guess what nature is trying to teach us is that: Toxic emotions are never meant to be part of us. The human soul, as enigmatic as it could be, has never been designed to harbor emotional toxins, and it is our responsibility to be free from them. Mental hygiene is just as important and vital as physical hygiene.  

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    When you don’t have sweet tooth it is hard to find snacks that can match your low tolerance for sugar. Almost all snacks were made out of sugar, chocolates and other forms of sweeteners. It is the main reason why Skittles stands out from the rest of the group. It is a sweet yet sour candy that comes in a bright rainbow colors. But all of a sudden Skittles became really dull and lost all that rainbow colors.     In an official stamen made by Skittles, they decided to have a different packaging for intended for the entire month of June. As practiced June is the month dedicated for the LGBT community. The LGBT community has the rainbow to represent them because they acknowledged that they are composed of different genders thus constitutes not just a single color but of different colors.      Since the Skittles and the LGBT community share the same kind of color representation, Skittles gladly gave way to the LGBT community. According to them, although the share the same symbol, one has to stand out and celebrate their existence and they give it whole heartedly to the LGBT group.      This is such a remarkable and thoughtful move for Skittles. Although they were branded and known because of their color, they were not afraid to give way to celebrate a significant event for some people. Consumers in return have shown appreciation to what the company did. Their customers admired their sensitive and immediate decision to honor the LGBT community.     Changing brand packaging is a bit risky when it comes to sales and market. Well known and established companies see to it that when they have to change or modify their packaging it needs to be somehow close to the previous design. It is because people shop out of familiarity. When you change your packaging into a totally different concept, chances are your consumers will not be able to recognize your products anymore.      However it is different with the case of Skittles. They dared to risk their sales and their brand in order to commemorate an event. With this making rounds in the internet, Skittles is rest assured that their customers would still remain loyal to them.   
    Birth order has been known to have a significant influence on a person’s personality. In fact a prominent and well known psychologist coined the theory about birth order. It was Alfred Adler’s work that lead other psychologists to consider how such event can partly affect and help in predicting a person’s overall personality.     In his theory of birth order however, a specific position have shown great crisis in terms of dealing with the demands of that particular order. The middle child is considered to be someone who is in between the eldest and the youngest child being born. The middle child has an elder sibling to compete with in terms of achievement and trust from parents, as well as control over the other siblings. At the same time the middle child needs to face the unfortunate reality that although he or she had enjoyed a moment of being the youngest it did not last long prior to the birth of a sibling. Now the youngest child enjoys all the attention and care that was supposedly given to the middle child.     It is quite a difficult task to stay on the middle. The eldest becomes busy with responsibilities entrusted by the parents, thus the eldest won’t mind not being their parents’ favorite because he or she was given a task or responsibility that needs to be fulfilled. In a way, the eldest child feels empowerment and develops control over his or her younger siblings. As a result, a middle child develop unique character traits in order to cope with the crisis of being caught in the middle. Commonly, they become secretive in nature. They naturally have high trust issues. The always strive to please everybody so that they can be noticed by their parents.      By staying in the middle, the child becomes a good mediator. After all it is an advantage to be on the both sides. It is like being the best of both worlds. The term middle child syndrome was a sort of adaptation to the crisis that child who falls under that particular order has to face. It’s considered a syndrome for some because most of the time middle kids have the same sentiments with one another.      Although Alfred Adler’s theory were postulated years ago it is still present up to this point. Certain modern psychologists have adopted his concept of birth order and how it pays a crucial role in the development of one’s personality.  
    If you are reading this then you are most likely a middle child who is looking for confirmation that you really feel special because of your controversial birth order. Although less attention is given to middle children during child rearing, middle children became an interesting target for research because of their complicated situation. Children who were born on such order have great qualities especially when it comes to coping and socialization. But what are the most common traits that makes up a middle child? Here is the list: 1.    A part of you will always feel that nobody cares about you – it is the most fundamental feeling that the middle children share. It starts when you just don’t know who or what you should be. The parents are busy making your older sibling responsible and at the same time they are busy looking after and enjoying your younger sibling.  2.    You were used to being alone but you are not even sad about it – although not all middle children are introverts, there is a strong force that pushes a middle child to enjoy a moment of himself or herself to meditate or to think of plans especially when a decision has to be made.  3.     You talk to yourself vocally – although it wasn’t intentional, most middle kids were not given the chance to voice out their opinion because it is the job of the older sibling and such decisions are actually made for the benefit of the youngest child. In a way, middle children have been used to voice out their thoughts to their selves alone. They do it because they actually value listening to opinion since they weren’t given that chance when they were young. 4.     You always think that you are not your parents’ favorite – parental biases will always take place no matter how many times parents say that they don’t have favoritism among their children. Meanwhile, the middles would voluntarily take the place of not being the favorite child or the less appreciated one because they have been used to sacrifice  ever since they became a middle child. 5.    It always comes to you to consider other people’s feelings before you make any decision – although this may sound too kind this is actually true for almost all middle kids. Since they were used to get caught in the middle they learned how it feels to be on top of someone and at the same time find themselves in the bottom.  6.     You feel a bit distant and secretive to your own family – this is a thing that only middle children could understand. It may sound rebellious but it is not. Since they were used being left behind or that their opinions don’t really matter at all, they become cautious in opening up or trusting a family member.     
    The primary instincts of humans is to survive. However aside from the goal of surviving humans are also born to appreciate art. Although art may seem not a necessity because a human being can survive without it, art is something that makes a person able to survive while staying sane. Art is not limited to paintings or drawings, music is considered as an art and even language. Humans are born to be artistic creatures and it is exciting to know that art is limitless and it can never be stopped. It is immortal and it will always be. One of the ultimate representation of art is having a tattoo. But is tattoo a form or art and expression or it is just a form of style?     Getting inked isn’t simple as it seems. Your body will become the perfect canvas for this art, thus it is important to carefully think about your purpose and the design that you wished to have. Also the pain while getting inked is not a joke. And, tattoo artists need to be very precise when they are doing their job. It is why tattoo artists deserve such high respect among other artists.      While many people could not understand why some would want to “stain” their bodies like they always think of, having a tattoo constitute to something deeper than just a fashion statement. It is quite hard to be judged once you have tattoos in your body. The society has this idea that once you have one in your body you are either an ex-convict, drug addict, a member of a gang, a prostitute and so much more. People with tattoos were even branded not to have good jobs. Tattoos are often objectified as a good for nothing art.      Having a tattoo is not equivalent to committing a crime but some people don’t make any distinction to it. People should then realize that art can take different forms, if they learned to appreciate music then tattoos deserve that chance too.      People who would want to get inked are ordinary people with bigger appreciation for art. They are the ones who are not afraid to be judged by other people. They are not ashamed of expressing who they are and they are proud of having it inked on their bodies. Having a tattoo does not mean you are destroying your body. How come it become destructive when it is in fact what your heart desires?   
    There are several ways to determine a person’s capability. A person can be judged through educational attainment, amount of salary or savings that that person has and many more. But a person’s personality is something which makes that particular person different from any other. In general personality is the overall qualities of a person. It includes his or her coping mechanisms, attitude to a particular situation, beliefs, aspiration, his or her character and even temperament. But how does a person’s personality develop? Is it something inborn, or is personality made? According to Psychology there are several things that can affect and are responsible in shaping a person’s personality such as birth order.      The relevance of birth order to personality was first proposed by Alfred Adler. According to him, birth order determines or guides a person’s personality because of a made up expectation to a child even before he or she learns to behave on things. Children are already expected to behave into a particular list things because it has been the norm of the society.     The birth order theory includes the first born, second born, middle, and the last born or as the only child. According to Adler the following are the shaped personalities according to birth order:     First Born – Tends to become achievers, controlling, and reliable, independent, perfectionist, structured and cautious. These traits are often associated with child rearing, since the first born are always entrusted or tasked to look after their younger siblings. And as the first born grows older, it will play a huge part in the development of personality.     Middle Child – We often hear about middle child syndrome which describes the crisis of being in between an older and a younger sibling. The birth order triggers the middle child to feel less wanted because the first born is entrusted with the responsibility and then the youngest becomes the favorite. Middle children tend to become secretive, short tempered, and prone to become rebellious but are good when it comes to socializing with other people.      Youngest – The youngest child in the family is considered to be the favorite of all. Although parents would try to give equal treatment to their children, it is the youngest child who will get all the attention and care. With the abundance of love and attention the youngest kids can become manipulative, self-centered, dependent, attention seeker but at the same time they are outgoing, they are good in dealing emotions and are often relaxed.