The Sandugo

    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.
    The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.
    The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored. 
    Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.
    The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.
    The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.

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    In 1937, General MacArthur married with Miss Faircloth. And on December of the same year he retired from military service but went on to live in Manila. But Roosevelt regionalized the Philippine Army on July 26, 1941. He then reassigned MacArthur to stand as major general of the American Army naming Douglas as commander of the USAFFE. Within a day, Macarthur’s promotion to lieutenant was proclaimed. Afterwards he was promoted on December 20, 1941 as a general. Other known officers were also promoted during that time. Sutherland became major general and Hugh Casey became brigadier general. By July 31, 1941 over twenty two thousand troops had been assigned by the Philippine Department.      General Douglas MacArthur’s famous ‘’I shall return’’ speech were a result of his escape from one of the most famous battles in the history of the Philippines known as the Fall of Bataan. In December 8, 1941 MacArthur was informed by Sutherland of the ambush on Pearl Harbor. Gen. George Marshall gave MacArthur orders to continue the original Rainbow Five war plan. But Douglas refused to follow the order. There were also requests of permission to hit bases owned by the Japanese from an Air Force commander but all were denied. They were confused on what to do next because of the attack that happened on Pearl Harbor. At noontime, Japanese Air crafts surprised and bombarded Clark Field and bases at the Iba Field and in a few days the US Air Force were all destroyed.     When the defense plans failed to stop the Japanese from taking Manila, the Filipino and U.S. Forces were called to retreat and bring all the war supplies to Bataan. MacArthur tried to lessen the Japanese speed in advancing but changed his mind when he saw the quick advancement of the Japanese and their superiority in battle against the Filipino troops. He called everyone to retreat to the Bataan peninsula to wait for reinforcements there. On December 24, 1941 the declaration of Manila as an open city was announced.     On the next day, MacArthur had to transfer his headquarters to the fortresses of Corregidor due to the destruction of nearly all of the USAFFE bases. Many of the headquarters started to go for Bataan to leave MacArthur. Although the Filipino and Americans knew they were hopeless they still fought the Japanese. Some of them blamed MacArthur because of the failure but others believed he would find a way to get them out of the mess.      The Japanese Army gradually neutralized most of the defenders of the Philippines on February in 1942. On the same year President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to move to Australia. He left with his family and major general Sutherland in PT boats away from Corregidor on March 12, 1942. They were received by B-17s and flew off to Australia. On March 20, 1942 he made his famous speech to return to the Philippine Islands. He was told by Washington to change the “I” on his statement to “we” but MacArthur refused it. In his speech he said, “ I came through and I shall return” stressing his resolve to redeem the Philippines from its enemies.  Meanwhile, after a series of battles, Bataan fell to the hands of the Japanese Army.     October 1944 gave MacArthur the chance he’d been waiting for. On the 20th of that month, and after efforts to be summoned by Roosevelt to Philippines, General Douglas was finally back in the Philippines. He landed on Leyte with the Sixth Army of Krueger’s troops where they waded on foot in the waters of the Leyte beach. He also made another famous speech where he reassured the Filipinos of his promise to eradicate their enemies once and for all. And after two months, the Japanese Army lost Leyte to the US Army.
    The Pasig River or also known in Filipino as the Ilog Pasig is a river that serves as a connection to the Manila Bay and the Laguna Bay. It stretches up to 25 km (15.5 miles) with the Metro Manila lining it on both sides. The Pasig River is an estuary as it has an open flow to the sea. The flow of its direction though depends on the difference of Laguna de Bay and Manila Bay’s water-levels.      In the past, the Spanish considered the Pasig River as an important route to Manila but because of the industrial development and years of negligence it has become stagnant. According to ecologists the river is no longer able to support or sustain life because of much pollution. But there are organizations such as the PRRC who are charged with implementing efforts to rehabilitate the river.     Generally the Ilog Pasig winds north and westward for twenty-five kilometers coming from the Laguna Bay towards Manila Bay. Before it enters Pasig City the river runs and passes the cities of Taguig and then the Taytay Rizal. From Pasig City the Ilog Pasig then forms a border between Pasig City and City with the Mandaluyong City located in the north border. Finally the river would turn towards the northeast where it then becomes a border between Manila and Mandaluyong after which it would then turn westward. In its final journey it flows into the San Juan River.      Before the negligence and the pollution, Ilog Pasig has been a very important source of livelihood for Manila. Before Manila was massively urbanized, the Pasig River was considered the lifeline of the city’s economic activity. It was along its banks that a number of prominent kingdoms were born in the Philippines. Some of these kingdoms are the Namayan, Tondo and Maynila which drew their life and income from the river. The Spanish’s arrival created changes in the river such as the establishment of Manila as capital to their possessions where Intramuros, the walled city was built on the south banks of Pasig River.     After the World War II, population grew dramatically along with the constructions of infrastructures. Also, economic activities were dispersed in the suburbs of Manila which resulted from the negligence of the river. As a result, informal settlers were attracted to the river’s banks along with factories who altogether would throw their wastes into the waters. Thus, the river transformed into a large sewer system. It is said that it was industrialization that polluted the Ilog Pasig.     But even so, the Ilog Pasig remains as a focal point for significant historical events and landmarks. It is on the southern banks that Intramuros was built. The Hospicio de San Jose which is a prominent orphanage is found in the River’s island of Convalescencia. Also in the northern part of its banks is where the Malacañan Palace, where the President officially resides was built and stands. Famous structures such as the Rockwell Commercial Center and Polytechnic University main campus are also found built near the banks of the Ilog Pasig. The river has served as the starting point of industrialization.
    As the art of exploration continuously evolves and unfolds myriads of discoveries, the Philippines take its stand to be included in one of the countries to provide a field for one of these amazing findings-the Guyabano. Reputed to be a miraculous fruit able to give a variety of use for the human’s benefits, the need to study it steadily rises.  Generally known as the Souroup, this fruit is called in the Philippines as the Guyabano. It is a fruit of the Annona muricata which belongs to the family of Custard apple trees. It also belongs to the same breed of the cherimoya and the pawpaw. As far as history is concerned it was brought to the Philippines at an early date by way of trade (the Galleons) from Mexico. What is unique about it is that among the other fruits of its genus, it is the only member suitable for preservation.     The guyabano has a lightweight but fragrant wood. It grows sweet scented white flowers which intensifies especially in the morning. It is usually 8-13 inches long and weighs 2.5 kilos. The guybano is dark green but when it is ripe the color turns yellow and its body becomes softer. It has black brown inedible seed. Aside from that, its inside is mostly made up of pulp and fiber. As for its taste the Guyabano is a mixture of various fruits; a combination of strawberry and pineapple with a hint of coconut. The taste buds would also detect markings of sour citrus within the pulp.      Soursoup is only produced in countries where the weather is tropical. And since the Philippines is a tropical country, the tree could be basically grown everywhere in the archipelago. It can grow in all kinds of soil and lives on high levels of humidity and temperatures above 37 degrees which is the secret to its survival. Any point below 5-3degrees could destroy the fruit.      In contrast to it being unpopular in the past, the guyabano is now starting to catch the eyes of many researchers. With the now innumerable studies on this fruit, there is a common factor which is noticeable among these researches. Most of these investigations are found to agree with one another in claiming the soursoup to have an effect which is 9,000 times stronger than that of the Adriamycin and that it could be employed for various types of cancers’ chemotherapy. What makes it amazing is that unlike chemotherapy the compounds of the guyabano only hunts down and kills cells that are cancerous and avoids the healthy ones. So that in contrast to chemotherapy, there is less, if none, harmful side effects resulting from its use such as hair loss, immune depression or extreme nausea. The most proven and known benefits of the Soursoup are as follows:     One can make sweet varieties out of its pulp such as ice cream, juice and candies     One can get rid of intestinal worms by chewing its leaves     Applying its leaves on wounds helps in faster healing     Fevers are neutralized by brewing its roots or when its leaves are mixed with bathing water     Its young leaves can be massaged to the skin for diseases such as rheumatism, eczema and pimples. It also prevents or reduces skin scars from wounds     In some countries, its leaves are said to draw in a good sleep when arranged inside pillows     Mixing its seeds with water and soap and spraying it on plants keeps away pests that are harmful     Head lice are destroyed by the oil extracts taken from its seeds     Aside from the lists given, research has also found out that the consumption of 225g of the guyabano’s pulp helps prevent disorders such as UTI, Constipation, Leg cramps, Water retention, Migraines, Anemia and pregnancy complications. However, there still are a number of doctors who deny the benefits of this fruit. But even so, this fruit has achieved the title of being a miraculous fruit.
    Although there are no official statements yet from globe telecom about them putting an end to their free Facebook promo on mobile data, people seemed to figure out quickly. When this promo started, people got the chance to enjoy using Facebook without spending anything for it. It is in all honesty free for its users. However who is actually funding this free subscription promo and why are they stopping it all of a sudden?     In 2013, globe launched its free Facebook for mobile data users. This was their best move considering that a growing number of users were already using smartphones rather than desktops or laptops. They wanted to be part of the convenience of having everything on your mobile device. And it was indeed a success because they were able to reach 140% of revenue growth a year after they launched the promo. They have even mentioned that free Facebook under globe telecom will forever stay as long as it gives them stable revenue.     But who is actually funding this promo? According to globe telecom, they are paying for the total cost of the bandwidth consumed by the free Facebook users. Although it may seemed like they are giving it for free, they were convinced that they are still making profit out of it. This could happen since a user will be charged right away once he or she goes out of the app by clicking a certain link.      The number of smartphone users at this moment is still increasing, but why is it that globe decided to retract its free Facebook promo, when more users would mean more growth in their revenue? Although they claimed that they are alone paying for the bandwidth of their users, this seems to be different in other network providers in different countries who decided to team up with the owner of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg. It is actually the owner of Facebook himself who shoulders the cost of the bandwidth in order to provide free access for its users and in return gain more number of users and more profit for his team.      Almost all websites that you can find in the internet rely on advertisers for monetary gain. If you have been fond of watching videos in Facebook you will notice ads being inserted in the middle of some videos, this is actually how Facebook makes money. But with globe’s free Facebook promo, you can barely view a picture and how much more for a video? The only thing that works on free Facebook is its messenger, but unlike the Facebook app, it does not contain ads.   
    The Philippines experienced a remarkable event in the history of politics when a humble Mayor from Mindanao won the 2016 presidential election. There were five presidential aspirants during the race; two of them were Senators, the Vice – President, the DILG Secretary and the Mayor of Davao City. Who would think that a humble Mayor all the way from Mindanao would actually win via landslide with more than 16million of votes all over the country and even abroad? It was like the entire nation has finally united to support him. It was even unexpected that this candidate managed to won the race since other contenders were actually considered to be more prominent than him and one has the administration’s support.      During the campaign period, the humble mayor made it clear to the public that he has nothing, that he has no money or campaign funds to make it to the presidential post. The only thing that he has and what he holds on to is his love for the country and to his fellow Filipinos. It was indeed true that he has no money and it wasn’t staged at all. But how did this man able to reach every corner of the country having no money? The answer lies within every Filipino who believes and has faith for him to restore our nation. An overflowing support of donations came in to help this candidate. People from different places campaigned for him for free. Some took the initiative to print shirts with his face, create stickers and other usual paraphernalia. However unlike other candidates, he has no definite campaign poster designs because it all depends on his supporters. This may sound humorous but despite the differences people should their great aspiration for this person.      For the first time in the Philippine History someone with a genuine concern won the presidential race having nothing but a pure intention to perform genuine public service to this nation. This is the main people supported him. With his clean and outstanding track record as a public servant for quite a number of years, majority of the people junked their doubts about him. What he did to the city of Davao is the most obvious and clear statement of what he is capable of doing.      Indeed the people finally realized that now is the time to support and be part of a greater change for the entire nation. There were a huge number of voters who turned themselves for registration when they learned the possibility that this person would soon run for president. It wasn’t even clear yet but people from all walks of life decided to become a registered voter just to give him their support. No other candidate was able to do that. His charisma and his strong will to deliver this country into glory were absolutely remarkable and from then on, the Philippines will never ever forget the name Rodrigo “Digong” Duterte. President Rodrigo Duterte, the president of the people who has always been for the people.   

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    Nature is indeed full of wonders and humans have not really explored it totally. There are still things that are seemingly odd in nature and there are also some that are quite deceiving. Take for example this Emerald Green Cat that was discovered in a small town in Bulgaria.      The town people and even people from far cities are quite familiar with this seemingly odd creature because of its color. The cat has been spotted walking around the city, it gives the town people the impression that it is a stray and it only gets its food by roaming around the place.      Due to its distinct color and possible breakthrough in the feline world, people from far countries travelled to Bulgaria just to take a closer peek and even take some pictures of it. However, this cat’s stardom started to fade when rainstorms came. Its bright emerald green color slowly faded away when rain started to fall.      It has been found out that the cat got its color from a barrel of paint where it sleeps. Although paints contain toxins that are eventually not good for the health, the cat was actually in good shape all throughout its stardom. With its color fading away, its popularity indeed started to slow down, however its quite noticeable she enjoyed her moment and made the most of it by gaining extra pounds.     
    In the midst of a severe flood happening in Guangxi Zhuang an Autonomous Region in China, a seemingly smiling pig was rescued along with other animals. Netizens were quick to spot the candidness of the pig’s smile while being saved from the flood. The pig seemed calmed and happy that it was rescued and even smiled wonderfully despite being held on its forelegs and ears.      As a usual response by netizens, its picture have been shared a hundred times and made quick rounds in social media all over the world. People were cheering of how this creature just made their days and made them smile right after seeing its picture.     However this pig’s instant stardom was shown not only through likes and shares of her original photo but people did hilarious Photoshop skills to savor the moment. The following are just one of the few photos that instantly became people’s favorite.       
    With today’s trend where direct, private, and instant messages are of great help to people, consumers must be aware in choosing mobile apps especially if it has something to do with your personal info’s such as your contact list where clients, bank accounts and other important stuff are being saved.     Most of the time, mobile apps are being installed because of its popularity. When a wide audience seemed to use it even for just a short time, you should expect for others to try it too without really verifying its security measures.  SARAHAH Honesty App is supposedly an app that can be used in giving feedbacks anonymously. Seems like people nowadays are drawn into intriguing stuff more than ever. However accordingly the app works in such a way that the person who has been rated or given feedback has no way of tracing or replying to it. The creator of the app tend to give its users the chance to leave positive comments or feedbacks as an act of kindness while keeping their identity unknown.      However the entire community has been totally shocked (shookt) when it has been revealed that this app is actually unknowingly stealing your personal details such as your contact list. Aside from stealing, they make use of it by uploading it to their data base and who knows what they could do about it.      Once you installed this app, it will only take them a while to steal your info. Logging out from the app can't make any difference at all. The best thing to do is to never ever install it and be more cautious in choosing an app.   
    In a certain Facebook post by Mark Dianne Duarte, three women are now asking for help from anyone with a good heart to help them with their current situation. The victims are residents of Cabdbaran Agusan del Sur.      With the intent to enhance and beautify themselves, they decided to undergo treatment from a person whom they barely know. The procedure went by injecting some unknown chemicals unto their faces. However instead of having better and beautiful faces, it went really worse and appeared distorted. The three of them have the same reaction with the chemical.     With the help of their friends and families, they are now trying to reach a certain amount in order to help the victims. Aside from the horrible outcome of what happened, the victims are now starting to become ill and are all afraid of what could happen to them if not given the proper care.     Unfortunately, the suspect is now nowhere to be found. The victims were not even aware of the suspect’s whereabouts.     According to the one who posted, a certain media will then cover the story of these women, to inform and especially warn those who would dare to undergo such procedure. The suspect was not a licensed medical professional but because of cheaper rates he managed to convince these ladies to try it all for the aim of becoming beautiful.     
    When you don’t have sweet tooth it is hard to find snacks that can match your low tolerance for sugar. Almost all snacks were made out of sugar, chocolates and other forms of sweeteners. It is the main reason why Skittles stands out from the rest of the group. It is a sweet yet sour candy that comes in a bright rainbow colors. But all of a sudden Skittles became really dull and lost all that rainbow colors.     In an official stamen made by Skittles, they decided to have a different packaging for intended for the entire month of June. As practiced June is the month dedicated for the LGBT community. The LGBT community has the rainbow to represent them because they acknowledged that they are composed of different genders thus constitutes not just a single color but of different colors.      Since the Skittles and the LGBT community share the same kind of color representation, Skittles gladly gave way to the LGBT community. According to them, although the share the same symbol, one has to stand out and celebrate their existence and they give it whole heartedly to the LGBT group.      This is such a remarkable and thoughtful move for Skittles. Although they were branded and known because of their color, they were not afraid to give way to celebrate a significant event for some people. Consumers in return have shown appreciation to what the company did. Their customers admired their sensitive and immediate decision to honor the LGBT community.     Changing brand packaging is a bit risky when it comes to sales and market. Well known and established companies see to it that when they have to change or modify their packaging it needs to be somehow close to the previous design. It is because people shop out of familiarity. When you change your packaging into a totally different concept, chances are your consumers will not be able to recognize your products anymore.      However it is different with the case of Skittles. They dared to risk their sales and their brand in order to commemorate an event. With this making rounds in the internet, Skittles is rest assured that their customers would still remain loyal to them.