Battle in the City of Golden Friendship - Cagayan de Oro

    The City of Cagayan de Oro is also the capital of Misamis Oriental. It is also the regional center of Northern Mindanao. Tourists and travelers from time to time flock the city. Because of this, it is titled as the city of golden friendship. Ironically, before the peace, it went through a tiresome war that made its mark in the history of the Philippines.
    For 276 years the Spanish Colonizers dominated the Philippines. But on the 10th of December 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed by the United States and Spain in Paris. In the treaty it was agreed that the country would handed over to the Americans in return for a payment. The amount paid to Spain by the Americans was 120,000,0000 dollars. In other words, Philippines was bought by the United States from Spain.
    In Cagayan de Oro, the Americans’ arrival was much received with restiveness and hostility by the Kagay-anons. They did not agree to the occupation of the US. And so a revolutionary group called “ Tercios Revolucionarios” was created and organized by the people of Cagayan. Its main leaders were people who are prominent even in today’s times. These people included known names in Cagayan de Oro such as Apolinar Velez, Nicanor Capistrano, Roa Y. Racines, Tirso Neri, and Cayetano Pacana.
    The prominent leaders of this organization purposefully trained and prepared the Kagay-anons mentally and physically. Their main goal was to resist and push back the Americans from entering their town. But there was a setback to their plans as they have realized. Their men had only bolos and some rifles as weapons to fight the Americans. But nevertheless, these were the men who fought in the famous April 7, 1900 battle and that of Macahambus.
    The invasion of Cagayan de Oro by the Americans came on 31 March 1900. They first bombarded the town and burned the flag of Macabalan. The fighters of the Tercios Revolucionarios were already prepared and trained even before the invasion came. But they waited until April 7 to attack the Americans. Their army was headed by General Nicolas Capistrano. Originally, they were camped at Gagno plateau at Bukidnon which is located 9km from Cagayan. 
    The ringing of San Agustin Church’s bell was the go signal for them to attack the Americans when they arrived. The Revolucionarios attacked in a systematized wave. The first wave were men with bolos only as weapons. Then next to them were the riflemen. They were then followed by cavalrymen. Their main plan was to make a sneak attack on the American soldiers. But because some of the macheteros(men with bolos) shouted battle cries, their plan was foiled.
    The Americans were quick to react to the battle cries of the natives carrying bolos and so there raged a battle between the well-armed Americans and the Revolucionarios. When Gen. Capistrano realized impending defeat, he ordered for a retreat. The most intense fighting happened in the town’s plaza, which is now called the Gaston Park. But the Kagay-anons stood no chance against the Americans. After an hour they were defeated and the remnants of the Revolucionarios were chased away from the city.
    Even with so little hope of winning, the Revolucionarios fought with much valiance. But still they were defeated. When peace returned to Cagayan de Oro, Tirso Neri became its first Mayor. There he ordered the opening of Divisoria.

Last modified
Saturday, September 10, 2016 - 11:04:25 PM
Topic
History

Featured Articles

    The Tabon Caves are set in Lipuun Point Reservation in Palawan. It is a 138-hectare of island which is linked to Palawan’s mainland by a forest. They are groups of caves found in the northern parts of the Quezon municipality in Palawan province on Palawan Island. The name of the caves was taken from the Tabon Scrubfowl, a bird with a large foot which lays eggs in the cave. South of the Tabon Caves is the town proper of Quezon. On the west they are bordered by Barangay Panitian. Meanwhile, the South China Sea is located on the north and eastern parts of these caves. Their mouths lay 33meters above sea level.     In the year 1962, researcher Dr. Robert B. Fox and his team found the skull of the Tabon man in one of the Tabon caves. It is reported that the remains were approximately 22-24,000 years old. The Tabon man belongs to the species of the Homo Sapien or better known as the intelligent and modern man. They have also found tools, jars, bones and jewelry which dates back fifty thousand years ago. These are the oldest remains ever found in the country. This discovery has indicated habitation 50,000 years ago while the limestone found in it is believed to date back to the Lower Middle Miocene Period which is equivalent to 25 million years back in human history. Ten years later, in April of 1972 the Lipuun Point Reservation became a Site Museum Reservation. It was also recognized as a priority site for the development of tourism of natural and culture heritage in 1991.      Because the oldest human remnant ever to be found in the Philippines, the Tabon man was found in the Tabon Cave, the caves gained the title of being the country’s Cradle of Civilization. It plays a very significant role in the discovery and knowledge of the history and heritage of Filipinos. According to the discoveries, the Tabon Caves is where one of the first habitants of the Philippines lived and was buried. The remains show that Tabon men lived in the cave. It says that they lived on small animals like bats and birds due to the small sizes of their stone tools. There were charcoals left from cooking fires.     The Guri Cave is the most important cave in the Tabon Cave complex because it is considered as the cave where the early people lived. These people lived earlier than the Tabon man, it was said. Archaeologists have found layers of soil inside which contained of garbage and a collection of marine shells left by the early people. It is estimated that their habituation dates back to 5000 and 2000 years B.C.     The Tabon Cave Complex is an attraction for both tourists and archaeologists. It contains vital information on the history and culture of the country’s heritage. It is the Philippine’s Cradle of Civilization. On the other hand, it provides a first-hand experience and a scenic view to visitors on one of the oldest abodes of ancient men.
    Losing weight has been one of the most anticipated topics for quite a while now. People are very much eager to lose weight and to obtain a physically fit body. Being slim and thin is now the new standard of beauty, which is the main reason why almost everyone are trying really hard to at least lower down those unwanted fats. The best and most effective way to lose weight is to have a daily exercise and to eat healthy foods that are enough to sustain the body’s need for energy. But people are too busy and lazy to do both.      It is undeniably true that people nowadays would love to eat and eat and wish not to gain weight at all. However it will never happen to most people. There are some though who don’t have any problems of gaining weight because of their metabolism.  But majority of people will pay price of eating too much and absolutely gaining too much weight. People are now trying their very best to finds the easiest yet the most effective way to lose weight. There are supplements, food suppressants, even coffee mix especially made to lose weight. To add to these is the discovery of rice corn.     Corn is known to be a good source of carbohydrates and even rich in minerals and vitamins. However although it is rich in carbohydrates it can actually help people lose weight especially if you are the type of person who often have carbs on their meals. Filipinos are rice eaters. It is hard for one to live on bread alone and that is for sure. If you rely heavily on rice or on carbohydrates it is best to replace rice with rice corn instead.      Rice corn might be effective to help you lose weight since it is has the most number of fiber among other grains. Aside from being fiber-rich, rice corn is more compact compared to rice. It means you only need a little serving for you to get full. Also it takes time before your stomach could actually digest corn because of its compact nature that is why it will also take time before you can feel hunger once again. Corn has less sugar compared to rice. It is one of the biggest assets of rice corn eaters. Carbohydrates, fats, and sugar are the three things you don’t want to accumulate in your diet if you want to achieve a lean and sexy body. Although corn contains carbs, you will be taking it in minimum amount since it is more compact compared to white rice.     Everybody is looking for different ways to lose weight. The best thing to do is to acquire discipline first and then look for ways appropriate for your body build. Not all dietary supplements are effective. Some would depend mainly on the body’s mechanism in losing weight!     
    Millenials or those who were born on early 2000’s will never understand the kind of life that the batang 90’s were able to experience. It was fun and memorable because children on those days consume most of their time playing with other kids. Internet and gadgets weren’t there yet when the Batang 90’s were still on their growing up years. There are plenty of games that truly a certified batang 90’s will never forget. Here are some of those: Patintero      This is quite common for almost all Filipino children living in both rural and urban areas. It has different versions on other places of the country yet the concept is still the same.      Luksong Tinik     Although boys would often play this game because this is done by hopping or jumping over someone, there are girls who are champions on this.     Teks     Gadgets were not yet present at that time, but Anime was already present. Kids are very much addicted to it and it is even the reason why they choose to go home early so they can watch it. To note, there was no internet so when you miss an episode you will never have the chance to watch it again, unless the station decided to replay it for some reason. Teks are usually have anime characters on it. And batang 90’s feel like their card or teks has the power of that character as well.     Dampa     Dampa is a game played with the use of rubberbands. Kids are even quite innovative then, because there are actually different hand techniques that you can use while playing. Your goal here is for you to have the rubber band pass through a certain light, using your bare hands.      Spider Fighting (Lawa-Lawa)     This may appear as animal cruelty right now, but since Spiders belong to the family of insects, it’s quite hard to determine if a Batang 90’s has already committed a crime back then. It’s like a boxing for spiders. Two sipders will stay on a single stick and they will then eventually fight with each other. It was fun witnessing how a spider can actually produce an amount of silk from its mouth to strangle its prey.      Chinese Garter     This game is quite common for girls rather than boys because of the nature of the game. It involves bending and flexing of legs in order to reach a certain level.      Marbles     Marbles or Jolen for Filipino Kids, goes along with dampa and teks. Your goal is to have the marble shoot on a hole intended for it. The game also includes the player hitting the marble of his opponent at a certain distance. 
    A new discovery has shocked the public when it has been revealed that obesity can actually be caused by a certain virus. This virus is  Adenovirus-36 which is actually the cause of common colds. It can be transferred through sneezing. So how did it became a culprit for obesity? According to studies conducted, subjects infected with this virus gained almost 60% of body fat which is absolutely unusual.     Obesity has been one of the greatest struggles of the modern generation. Despite the risk and negative effects of obesity, its number is still rapidly growing even up to this moment. It is also depressing to note that the age of those having obesity keeps on getting younger and younger each year.      As history and science stated, obesity is a result of unhealthy lifestyle. It can be passed through generations making it a hereditary type of illness. It has even created a stigma especially in the society of how obesity can actually make you feel rejected and unloved. Most of the people with this kind of problem would complain that they never really wanted to become what they are. Yet it sounds really difficult to accept since people were used to think that obesity is the product of eating too much amount of food.     This notion could be rejected in no time after scientist have discovered that lifestyle and genetics could not only be the culprit behind this illness. In a study entitled it has been discussed that obesity can actually be caused by a strand of virus. If this is true, then obesity can be transferred or contagious disease. This is the main reason why people almost panicked after reading this new statement. However it has also sparked the scientist to study more and perhaps discover a definite cure for this illness. If this happens, several lives can be helped and possibly obesity may no longer be a great crisis for the entire mankind.     On the other hand, opponents of this study, strongly questioned the possibility of blaming the cause of obesity to virus. According to them, viruses have incubation periods and that it is impossible to trigger obesity. Obesity being contagious is also very impossible to believe since according to them, obesity is acquired through time rather than a quick exposure to someone and then develop it later on.      Debates are still continuing as researchers and scientists are trying to reveal the causes of obesity and finding ways or treatments on how to actually put an end to this illness.   
    The word Durian came from an Indonesian word duri which means “thorn”. It is a fruit which belongs to a certain species of a tree called the genus Durio. It is well known in Southeast Asia with the nickname of “the fruit king”. The fruit is noticeable for its bulky size, hard and large thorns covered with husk, and its famous Durian odor. Some Durians are oblong in size but others are round. The husk’s color varies from brown to green. The color of its flesh also vary depending on its species: some are yellow while others are red. The odors emanating from the fruit comes from its flesh which is edible. It is so strong that even when the husk is intact the odor comes out of it. And although some would find it pleasant and fragrant, most people react negatively to it. Because of that the fruit has been banned in some hotels or public transportations in Asia.     The Durian can be eaten in numerous ways, in different stages of its ripeness and is used as an addition to flavors on all kinds of sweets and savory in Asian foods. The seeds have also been found to be edible when it is cooked. The Durian has 30 different species from the genus Durio. But out of the thirty only nine species are considered edible.  Only one of the 9 species called the Durio zibethinus are available in the international market. The other 8 are sold locally in the regions where they are grown.     The trees of the King of the Fruits grow up to fifty metres. It has oblong evergreen leaves and flowers which are clustered in the branches. The usual durian tree takes about 4 to 5 years before it can produce fruits. The fruits then, after pollination takes up to 3 months before it matures.     Durian has been known in southern Asia even in the prehistoric times. But in the western world, the fruit has only been introduced 600 years ago. In the 15th century Europian by the name of Niccolo Da Conti travelled and came to southeast Asia where he discovered the fruit.     The fruit has wide variety of uses in different cuisines from all over Asia. Over the years it has been used to add flavor to ice kakangs, Malay candies, dodols (sweets from Mindanao), biscuits, ice creams and mooncakes. It was also used in cappuccinos. Its flesh can also be dried to make durian chips.     Aside from its edible contributions to food, the Durian also has medicinal and nutritional aids to the society. It has been discovered that the fruit is high in sugar, potassium, Vitamin C, fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The juice extracted from its leaves has also been used as ointments to the head of patients with fevers. The roots can also be boiled in water and drink to stop fevers. It can also be used as poultice, a soft mass applied to irritated or inflamed skin.     The Durian was called as the King of the Fruits because of its tough image and thorns and its overwhelming odor.

Recent Articles

    When you don’t have sweet tooth it is hard to find snacks that can match your low tolerance for sugar. Almost all snacks were made out of sugar, chocolates and other forms of sweeteners. It is the main reason why Skittles stands out from the rest of the group. It is a sweet yet sour candy that comes in a bright rainbow colors. But all of a sudden Skittles became really dull and lost all that rainbow colors.     In an official stamen made by Skittles, they decided to have a different packaging for intended for the entire month of June. As practiced June is the month dedicated for the LGBT community. The LGBT community has the rainbow to represent them because they acknowledged that they are composed of different genders thus constitutes not just a single color but of different colors.      Since the Skittles and the LGBT community share the same kind of color representation, Skittles gladly gave way to the LGBT community. According to them, although the share the same symbol, one has to stand out and celebrate their existence and they give it whole heartedly to the LGBT group.      This is such a remarkable and thoughtful move for Skittles. Although they were branded and known because of their color, they were not afraid to give way to celebrate a significant event for some people. Consumers in return have shown appreciation to what the company did. Their customers admired their sensitive and immediate decision to honor the LGBT community.     Changing brand packaging is a bit risky when it comes to sales and market. Well known and established companies see to it that when they have to change or modify their packaging it needs to be somehow close to the previous design. It is because people shop out of familiarity. When you change your packaging into a totally different concept, chances are your consumers will not be able to recognize your products anymore.      However it is different with the case of Skittles. They dared to risk their sales and their brand in order to commemorate an event. With this making rounds in the internet, Skittles is rest assured that their customers would still remain loyal to them.   
    Birth order has been known to have a significant influence on a person’s personality. In fact a prominent and well known psychologist coined the theory about birth order. It was Alfred Adler’s work that lead other psychologists to consider how such event can partly affect and help in predicting a person’s overall personality.     In his theory of birth order however, a specific position have shown great crisis in terms of dealing with the demands of that particular order. The middle child is considered to be someone who is in between the eldest and the youngest child being born. The middle child has an elder sibling to compete with in terms of achievement and trust from parents, as well as control over the other siblings. At the same time the middle child needs to face the unfortunate reality that although he or she had enjoyed a moment of being the youngest it did not last long prior to the birth of a sibling. Now the youngest child enjoys all the attention and care that was supposedly given to the middle child.     It is quite a difficult task to stay on the middle. The eldest becomes busy with responsibilities entrusted by the parents, thus the eldest won’t mind not being their parents’ favorite because he or she was given a task or responsibility that needs to be fulfilled. In a way, the eldest child feels empowerment and develops control over his or her younger siblings. As a result, a middle child develop unique character traits in order to cope with the crisis of being caught in the middle. Commonly, they become secretive in nature. They naturally have high trust issues. The always strive to please everybody so that they can be noticed by their parents.      By staying in the middle, the child becomes a good mediator. After all it is an advantage to be on the both sides. It is like being the best of both worlds. The term middle child syndrome was a sort of adaptation to the crisis that child who falls under that particular order has to face. It’s considered a syndrome for some because most of the time middle kids have the same sentiments with one another.      Although Alfred Adler’s theory were postulated years ago it is still present up to this point. Certain modern psychologists have adopted his concept of birth order and how it pays a crucial role in the development of one’s personality.  
    If you are reading this then you are most likely a middle child who is looking for confirmation that you really feel special because of your controversial birth order. Although less attention is given to middle children during child rearing, middle children became an interesting target for research because of their complicated situation. Children who were born on such order have great qualities especially when it comes to coping and socialization. But what are the most common traits that makes up a middle child? Here is the list: 1.    A part of you will always feel that nobody cares about you – it is the most fundamental feeling that the middle children share. It starts when you just don’t know who or what you should be. The parents are busy making your older sibling responsible and at the same time they are busy looking after and enjoying your younger sibling.  2.    You were used to being alone but you are not even sad about it – although not all middle children are introverts, there is a strong force that pushes a middle child to enjoy a moment of himself or herself to meditate or to think of plans especially when a decision has to be made.  3.     You talk to yourself vocally – although it wasn’t intentional, most middle kids were not given the chance to voice out their opinion because it is the job of the older sibling and such decisions are actually made for the benefit of the youngest child. In a way, middle children have been used to voice out their thoughts to their selves alone. They do it because they actually value listening to opinion since they weren’t given that chance when they were young. 4.     You always think that you are not your parents’ favorite – parental biases will always take place no matter how many times parents say that they don’t have favoritism among their children. Meanwhile, the middles would voluntarily take the place of not being the favorite child or the less appreciated one because they have been used to sacrifice  ever since they became a middle child. 5.    It always comes to you to consider other people’s feelings before you make any decision – although this may sound too kind this is actually true for almost all middle kids. Since they were used to get caught in the middle they learned how it feels to be on top of someone and at the same time find themselves in the bottom.  6.     You feel a bit distant and secretive to your own family – this is a thing that only middle children could understand. It may sound rebellious but it is not. Since they were used being left behind or that their opinions don’t really matter at all, they become cautious in opening up or trusting a family member.     
    The primary instincts of humans is to survive. However aside from the goal of surviving humans are also born to appreciate art. Although art may seem not a necessity because a human being can survive without it, art is something that makes a person able to survive while staying sane. Art is not limited to paintings or drawings, music is considered as an art and even language. Humans are born to be artistic creatures and it is exciting to know that art is limitless and it can never be stopped. It is immortal and it will always be. One of the ultimate representation of art is having a tattoo. But is tattoo a form or art and expression or it is just a form of style?     Getting inked isn’t simple as it seems. Your body will become the perfect canvas for this art, thus it is important to carefully think about your purpose and the design that you wished to have. Also the pain while getting inked is not a joke. And, tattoo artists need to be very precise when they are doing their job. It is why tattoo artists deserve such high respect among other artists.      While many people could not understand why some would want to “stain” their bodies like they always think of, having a tattoo constitute to something deeper than just a fashion statement. It is quite hard to be judged once you have tattoos in your body. The society has this idea that once you have one in your body you are either an ex-convict, drug addict, a member of a gang, a prostitute and so much more. People with tattoos were even branded not to have good jobs. Tattoos are often objectified as a good for nothing art.      Having a tattoo is not equivalent to committing a crime but some people don’t make any distinction to it. People should then realize that art can take different forms, if they learned to appreciate music then tattoos deserve that chance too.      People who would want to get inked are ordinary people with bigger appreciation for art. They are the ones who are not afraid to be judged by other people. They are not ashamed of expressing who they are and they are proud of having it inked on their bodies. Having a tattoo does not mean you are destroying your body. How come it become destructive when it is in fact what your heart desires?   
    There are several ways to determine a person’s capability. A person can be judged through educational attainment, amount of salary or savings that that person has and many more. But a person’s personality is something which makes that particular person different from any other. In general personality is the overall qualities of a person. It includes his or her coping mechanisms, attitude to a particular situation, beliefs, aspiration, his or her character and even temperament. But how does a person’s personality develop? Is it something inborn, or is personality made? According to Psychology there are several things that can affect and are responsible in shaping a person’s personality such as birth order.      The relevance of birth order to personality was first proposed by Alfred Adler. According to him, birth order determines or guides a person’s personality because of a made up expectation to a child even before he or she learns to behave on things. Children are already expected to behave into a particular list things because it has been the norm of the society.     The birth order theory includes the first born, second born, middle, and the last born or as the only child. According to Adler the following are the shaped personalities according to birth order:     First Born – Tends to become achievers, controlling, and reliable, independent, perfectionist, structured and cautious. These traits are often associated with child rearing, since the first born are always entrusted or tasked to look after their younger siblings. And as the first born grows older, it will play a huge part in the development of personality.     Middle Child – We often hear about middle child syndrome which describes the crisis of being in between an older and a younger sibling. The birth order triggers the middle child to feel less wanted because the first born is entrusted with the responsibility and then the youngest becomes the favorite. Middle children tend to become secretive, short tempered, and prone to become rebellious but are good when it comes to socializing with other people.      Youngest – The youngest child in the family is considered to be the favorite of all. Although parents would try to give equal treatment to their children, it is the youngest child who will get all the attention and care. With the abundance of love and attention the youngest kids can become manipulative, self-centered, dependent, attention seeker but at the same time they are outgoing, they are good in dealing emotions and are often relaxed.