The University of Santo Tomas (UST) is the oldest ever made university existing in the Philippines which is found in Manila. It is also famous for being the largest in the city and also being a Pontifical University, the only one of its own in Asia. It is considered one of the largest Catholic universities in the world. Aside from that, UST is known for being the only university of its kind to be visited thrice by two popes namely, Pope John Paul II and Pope Paul VI. The Order of Preachers are the group that run the private and Roman Catholic university. 
    It consists of many independent colleges, faculties, institutes and schools. Each of these confers all kinds of graduate degrees. The Patron and Patroness of the University is St, Thomas Aquinas and St. Catherine. The University of Santo Tomas has also produced prominent people who have contributed a lot in Philippine’s history. Thomasians vary in prominence from saints, to professionals and presidents, to heroes, scientists and famous artists. It also has an athletic group of teams called the Growling Tigers which have consistently won in the Overall Championships.
    Manila’s third Archbishop Miguel de Benavides takes the credit for the foundation of UST. He first arrived in the country on 1587 in a Dominican mission. In 1601 he got promoted in Manila as the archbishop. When he died in 1605 on July, he left his property consisting of properties worth 1,500 pesos and a library with the intention of using it as a fund to establish higher learning institutions. It was Bernardo de Santo Catalina who carried out his will. Catalina secured a building and a convent beside the Dominican church and Intramuros all for the purpose of establishing a college.
    A request for permission in opening the said college was sent to King Philipp the third in Spain on the year 1609. But the process took two years after which a reply came to Manila in 1811. In 28 April of 1611 the signing of the foundation’s act was witnessed by Juan Illian who was a notary. The act of foundation was signed by Baltazar Fort, Francisco Minayo and Bernardo Navarro. Baltazar took the position of the first Rector and was appointed as Father Provincial. The university used to be an establishment for seminary in the 17th century for priests. It took its name from the saint Thomas Aquinas. It offered courses such as philosophy, grammar, civil and logic. By the year 1871 medicine and pharmacy were added to its list making it the first in Asia to offer the courses.
    By the start of the 20th century the population of students enrolling in the university steadily grew. It multiplied until the Dominicans were granted a land in Sulucan Hills at Sampaloc. The land consisted of 25.1 hectare of soil. For the past few decades, the population kept growing and other courses and degrees were offered until it became the largest university in Manila.
    The university, due its massive number of students moved from its original quarters on 1927. In May 24, 2011 the University of Santo Tomas came to be declared as a National Landmark. It is found near Espana Boulevard and Dapitan Street of Sampaloc in Manila. Its seal is made up of a shield with the cross of Dominicans quartering it.

    The Tubbataha name originates from a Samal word which means “a large reef bare to the low tides”. Because of their nomadic lifestyle the Samal people of the sea frequently visited the large reef and would live there temporarily. 
    The Tubbataha Reef of the Sulu Sea in the Philippines is an atoll reef which means that it is a coral island with a lagoon in the middle of its body. Located 180km southeast from Puerto Princesa, a trip to the coral island is a 12-hour long ride by a boat.  The reef has two main parts. The smaller of the two coral islands is located in the southern part having 5kilometers in length and 3kilometers wide. The larger one or also called the North Atoll has a length of 2kilometers and is 5kilometers in width. So far, there has been no permanent inhabitant living in the area. Fishermen only come and build shelters in the area by seasons. Tourists and divers would also visit the reef due to the fact that it has gained the reputation of being the best site for diving in the Philippines.The coral reef is popular for its walls that immediately ends and gives way to great depths. Divers find it wonderful to dive in from them. Various colonies of fish also dwell on the wonder of these walls.  Parrotfish, hammerhead sharks, manta rays, napoleon wrasse and barracudas are some of which have been reported to be living in it. There are also some reports of whale and tiger sharks seen in the corals. The Tubbataha has over a thousand species many of which are endangered inhabiting its reef. Some of which are the lionfish, clownfish and hawksbill sea turtles. Its ecosystem is so diverse that it has been said to rival that of the marine life found the Great Barrier Reef. Recent researches show that it has an estimate of about 400 to 600 coral and fish species.
    The Tubbataha Reef of Palawan is now called the Tubbataha National Marine Park. What makes it remarkable is its enormous size. In the year 1988 of August it was established as having an area of 82thousand acres. Later in 2006, its boundary was further increased by executive order to 200% by then president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. At present the PCSD (Palawan Council for Sustainable Development and DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) is responsible for its technical supervision.
    The Tubbataha Seasons are those months when the waves are considered to be more safe and calm. It is also the season when divers and tourists visit the spot in large numbers. Travelers would fill the area especially during the Easter and the Golden Week of the Asian holidays. It has been advised that visitors would do well to book trips right after or somewhere in the middle of April as strong waves are still present during those days which may cause troubles for diving excursions and visibility in underwater.

    Iloilo is a province in the Philippines occupying the south and east part of the Panay Island. Its location is found in the Western Visayas. The territory is bordered by the Capiz Province on the north and the Antique Province on the west. The capital of Iloilo is Iloilo City. But the city is independent from the government of Iloilo. 
    During the Spanish era in the Philippines, writing was a new form of import which is why there are no existing written historical accounts of Iloilo today especially on the pre-Hispanic times. There are epics told in oral history but that too has not survived much through time. The oldest existing written account of the Spanish conquest on Iloilo was Miguel de Legazpi’s transfer of headquarters to Iloilo from Cebu in 1566. 
    Geographically, the province has two regions dividing it. The first is the highlands which is located in its western border. The second region is the lowland and occupies a much larger portion. Second to the Sanderbans, Iloilo is known to have the largest biggest marshland in Western Visayas. Its subdivisions consist of an urban city, a component city and forty-two municipalities.
    The people of Iloilo are known as Ilonggos. They have two local languages which is Hiligaynon and Kinaray-a. In the past Spanish was considered as their local language. But after the WWII the numbers of people speaking it naturally declined until most of the Ilonggos did not see it as their local language.
    The high speed of the development of trade and industry in the 18th century began Iloilo’s rise in economy amongst the Visayas islands. It earned its name as “Textile Capital of the Philippines” where their products were continually exported to Manila and abroad. The upper middle class of Iloilo enjoyed their prosperity as their textile industry rose. But during the 19th century this industry began to go low because of UK’s introduction to the world of cheaper textiles.
    In 1855 however, the waning of the textile industry did not depress Iloilo as it was the year when the port of the province was opened to the world market. Thus, agriculture and industry had direct contact with markets abroad. In the late 19th century Iloilo experienced a boom in its economy because of its quick development of its sugar industry. During those times sugar was on the list of one of the most in demand products. The vice-consul of Britain at that time gave loans, constructed warehouses and began introducing new methods in sugar farming. This helped a lot in the development of the industry.
    The families of the province became richer and richer and started developing large areas from Negros and turned them into haciendas as the world market’s demand for sugar kept rising. As a result, it was from Iloilo that increase of firms, banks, educational institutions, commercial activity, infrastructures and foreign consulates came from. Development of economy in the province kept rising because of the sugar industry until in October 5, 1889 the Queen of Spain, Maria Cristina gave rise to the town’s status via Royal Decree establishing the city government.

    The Pamalican Island is an island surrounded by reefs with a size of seven square meters. It is located in the Sulu Sea between the island of Agutaya and Cuyo. The Pamalican Island is found north of Palawan. It is part of a numerous groups of island which makes up the Cuyo Archipelago. Though it is a small island with an estimate of 500 meters width, it is considered as one of Philippines’ best island private resorts. Originally the island was a plantation until it was bought by a businessman named Andres Soriano Jr. It was then his children who made a decision to transform it into a private resort. At present, its totality now belongs to the resort which is owned by Sorianos called the Seven Seas Resort. It is also a branch of the Aman Resorts resort group nemd the Amanpulo.
    Visitors, tourists and customers can get to the island via a plane coming from Manila. The Dornier 228-202K plane ferries people and supplies to the exclusive resort. Along with it comes personal buggies that takes visitors for a free ride round the island. What is remarkable about the Pamalican Island is its extremely calm and secluded atmosphere. 
    One of its main attractions are its diving sites and coral reefs. It also has a bio diversity of marine life including manta rays and giant turtles. On the north of the island the “Windsurf hut” offers surf boards and sail for customers. Surfers find the monsoon season which is usually from the months of November to May a very nice time to go for a surf since the winds would blow towards the shore. 
    Aside from being one of Philippine’s best resorts the Pamalican Island stands as nominee for being one of the best in the world. People who have visited its resorts have said that the island itself looks like a green comet placed on white sand. The island is also famous for its purely natural ambience. It takes only an hour and a half to walk around the whole island. Sights of sharks and giant turtles on the shores are also frequent in the area. Tourists have found its experience to be a “retreat within a retreat”. 
    What makes the Pamalican island is the Amanpulo. It is a five star hotel and resort exclusive and under the ownership of 7 Seas Resort. The Amanpulo is a combination of Snaskrit and tagalong words which means peaceful islands. Celebrities, politicians and successful businessmen constantly visit the resort because of its unmatched privacy that it offers to people who are in need of it. Famous people including Micheal Jackson and Robert De Niro were even reported as having taken a vacation on the resort though it was never confirmed by the management. 
    People who wish to visit the Pamalican Island have to go by NAIA Airport. The resort itself provides private planes for the customers operated by the Island Aviation owned by the Sorianos. Each visitor is provided with private buggies that take them to their villas and casitas.

    The biggest mall owners and developers of the Philippines is the SM Prime Holdings. They are the ones who own and developed the SM Mall of Asia which is the third largest in all of Asia. The Mall of Asia ranks as the World’s 4th largest mall having approximately 390,000 square meters by 407,101 square meters in total area. It is located near the Manila Bay and SM Central Park at Pasay City of the Philippines. With its large size come also a large number of people visiting it every day with an average of 200,000. The Mall of Asia is the Philippine’s largest mall until in 2006 when it became the 2nd after the SM City North EDSA’s redevelopment.
    The Mall has a vicinity of 19.5 hectares of land with 390,194 square meters of floor area. It has four buildings with walkways interconnecting them. These building consist mainly of the parking buildings (one in the north and another at the south), the entertainment and the main mall. The latter mall then consists of shopping establishments and restaurants including the food court. The entertainment mall on the other hand is mostly made up of two-story complexes usually open-air. It is built facing the Manila Bay. Finally the north and south parking buildings are designated on the south and northern areas of the Mall. The south is located at the Department Store while the North at the SM Hypermarket. Each building has 2,500 parking spaces. Visitors of the Mall of Asia are welcomed by a large globe made of framed steel with an LED display of a Globamaze.
    The mall consists of branches of stores which are mostly found in other SM Malls.Aside from that MOA also has 4 other theaters of various kinds. The Director’s Club Theater is used for intimate screenings. The Premiere and CenterStage Cinemas on the other hand is utilized to facilitate live concerts and theatricals. But the San Miguel-Coca-Cola IMAX theatre is the biggest theater in the Mall and is also considered one of the tops in the world.
    Another one of the attractions that MOA has is its large skating rink which has an Olympic size of 60x30 meters. Visitors could also enroll at training programs for figure skating and hockey. In 2007 SkateAsia competitions was held at the MOA which was a first in the history of Philippines to host an international event. Aside from these competitions the music hall beside the sea has also hosted singing competitions and concerts.
    The Mall of Asia has so many features coming along with its great size. What makes it unique from other malls is that it has a tram which could accommodate 20 people. It also has a Ferry Terminal which saves tourists an hour of time going to Cavite. Other famous attraction of the mall is the SM by the Bay beside the sea (which used to be a place called the Baywalk), the SMX Convention Center (largest in the Philippines) and the MOA Asia Arena which is located at the MOA complex.

    One of the most sophisticated cities of the sixteen cities that makes up Metro Manila is Makati City. It is called the Cosmopolitan City because of its diversity in culture. It is famous for a number of reasons. Aside from being the country’s financial center, it also hosts embassies which is why it is where some international affairs are held. Makati city is remarkable for its multicultural lifestyle. It is also reputed as the entertainment center as well as a center for all kinds of intercontinental matters. The city though is most known for its hotels, condominiums, financial hubs, entertainment hubs and shopping centers all scattered around it.
    According to traditional accounts, the name Makati came from a misinterpretation by the Tagalog Filipino people of Governor General Miguel de Legazpi’s questions. In the story, he asked for the name of the land near the Pasig River, but the Filipinos replied the word “Makati” which refers to the ebbing tides of the river. It was on 02 January, 1995 that Makati through the 7854 Republic Act became an independent city. Then on 30 June, 1998 the City of Makati became divided into two districts.
    The city is also famous for its prominent shopping malls like Greenbelt, Power Plant and the Glorietta Malls. Aside from that it is known as the home for one of the top schools in business known as the AIM or the Asian Institute of Management. This school is an internationally recognized school. Also, Makati is where the various Rockwell campus is located.
    As for its culture, the city consists of art museums, historical churches and other recreations. It is where the Manila Polo Club and Manila Golf Club is found. It also has famous landmarks in sports such as the Mkati Coliseum and the Sports Club of Makati. 
    The city’s official seal represents its territory’s silhouette. Underneath the silhouette is a symbol of the Pasig River which in real life is found in the north borders of Makati. Also, in front of the silhouette is the Gudalupe Church which has been included because of it being the oldest church in the City. It also symbolizes influence from the Spanish early rulers. Aside from that, in front of the city’s silhouette are drawings of skyscrapers behind which are 33 lines of rays that represents Makati’s barangays.
    According to history the city of Makati used to be a part of the Santa Ana de Sapa municipality and was used as a center for pilgrimage. In the year 1670 it became an independent municipality having the name of San Pedro de Macati after its patron Saint Peter. During that century until the 18th century Makati has been famous for being prosperous in pottery.
    But the rapid growth of the town came after the 2nd World War. It gave rise to real estate prices, communities which are planned centrally, and became the commercial and financial capital of the Philippines. Makati City is home to famous shopping malls, hotels, condominiums, museums, embassies and churches. Its diversity in nature became the key to its success.

    The Pasig River or also known in Filipino as the Ilog Pasig is a river that serves as a connection to the Manila Bay and the Laguna Bay. It stretches up to 25 km (15.5 miles) with the Metro Manila lining it on both sides. The Pasig River is an estuary as it has an open flow to the sea. The flow of its direction though depends on the difference of Laguna de Bay and Manila Bay’s water-levels. 
    In the past, the Spanish considered the Pasig River as an important route to Manila but because of the industrial development and years of negligence it has become stagnant. According to ecologists the river is no longer able to support or sustain life because of much pollution. But there are organizations such as the PRRC who are charged with implementing efforts to rehabilitate the river.
    Generally the Ilog Pasig winds north and westward for twenty-five kilometers coming from the Laguna Bay towards Manila Bay. Before it enters Pasig City the river runs and passes the cities of Taguig and then the Taytay Rizal. From Pasig City the Ilog Pasig then forms a border between Pasig City and City with the Mandaluyong City located in the north border. Finally the river would turn towards the northeast where it then becomes a border between Manila and Mandaluyong after which it would then turn westward. In its final journey it flows into the San Juan River. 
    Before the negligence and the pollution, Ilog Pasig has been a very important source of livelihood for Manila. Before Manila was massively urbanized, the Pasig River was considered the lifeline of the city’s economic activity. It was along its banks that a number of prominent kingdoms were born in the Philippines. Some of these kingdoms are the Namayan, Tondo and Maynila which drew their life and income from the river. The Spanish’s arrival created changes in the river such as the establishment of Manila as capital to their possessions where Intramuros, the walled city was built on the south banks of Pasig River.
    After the World War II, population grew dramatically along with the constructions of infrastructures. Also, economic activities were dispersed in the suburbs of Manila which resulted from the negligence of the river. As a result, informal settlers were attracted to the river’s banks along with factories who altogether would throw their wastes into the waters. Thus, the river transformed into a large sewer system. It is said that it was industrialization that polluted the Ilog Pasig.
    But even so, the Ilog Pasig remains as a focal point for significant historical events and landmarks. It is on the southern banks that Intramuros was built. The Hospicio de San Jose which is a prominent orphanage is found in the River’s island of Convalescencia. Also in the northern part of its banks is where the Malacañan Palace, where the President officially resides was built and stands. Famous structures such as the Rockwell Commercial Center and Polytechnic University main campus are also found built near the banks of the Ilog Pasig. The river has served as the starting point of industrialization.

    The Tabon Caves are set in Lipuun Point Reservation in Palawan. It is a 138-hectare of island which is linked to Palawan’s mainland by a forest. They are groups of caves found in the northern parts of the Quezon municipality in Palawan province on Palawan Island. The name of the caves was taken from the Tabon Scrubfowl, a bird with a large foot which lays eggs in the cave. South of the Tabon Caves is the town proper of Quezon. On the west they are bordered by Barangay Panitian. Meanwhile, the South China Sea is located on the north and eastern parts of these caves. Their mouths lay 33meters above sea level.
    In the year 1962, researcher Dr. Robert B. Fox and his team found the skull of the Tabon man in one of the Tabon caves. It is reported that the remains were approximately 22-24,000 years old. The Tabon man belongs to the species of the Homo Sapien or better known as the intelligent and modern man. They have also found tools, jars, bones and jewelry which dates back fifty thousand years ago. These are the oldest remains ever found in the country. This discovery has indicated habitation 50,000 years ago while the limestone found in it is believed to date back to the Lower Middle Miocene Period which is equivalent to 25 million years back in human history. Ten years later, in April of 1972 the Lipuun Point Reservation became a Site Museum Reservation. It was also recognized as a priority site for the development of tourism of natural and culture heritage in 1991. 
    Because the oldest human remnant ever to be found in the Philippines, the Tabon man was found in the Tabon Cave, the caves gained the title of being the country’s Cradle of Civilization. It plays a very significant role in the discovery and knowledge of the history and heritage of Filipinos. According to the discoveries, the Tabon Caves is where one of the first habitants of the Philippines lived and was buried. The remains show that Tabon men lived in the cave. It says that they lived on small animals like bats and birds due to the small sizes of their stone tools. There were charcoals left from cooking fires.
    The Guri Cave is the most important cave in the Tabon Cave complex because it is considered as the cave where the early people lived. These people lived earlier than the Tabon man, it was said. Archaeologists have found layers of soil inside which contained of garbage and a collection of marine shells left by the early people. It is estimated that their habituation dates back to 5000 and 2000 years B.C.
    The Tabon Cave Complex is an attraction for both tourists and archaeologists. It contains vital information on the history and culture of the country’s heritage. It is the Philippine’s Cradle of Civilization. On the other hand, it provides a first-hand experience and a scenic view to visitors on one of the oldest abodes of ancient men.

    The complex Taal Volcano is located in the Philippines at the island of Luzon 31miles south of Manila. It is found on an island right in the middle of the Taal Lake. In the prehistoric times between 140,000 to 5,380 BP, this volcano exploded in powerful eruptions which eventually resulted in the formation of Taal Caldera which is partially filled by the lake. The complex volcano when viewed from the Tagaytay ridge emanates one of the most picturesque attractions in the Philippines.
    In the past the volcano has erupted several times claiming the lives of many people residing in the island. These losses of life were estimated to be about 5,000-6,000. It was labeled as a Decade Volcano due to its simultaneous eruptions and its proximity to areas which are populated. It is one of Philippines’ most active volcanoes and is also included in the Pacific ring of fire.
    The Taal Volcano and Lake is found in the province of Batangas and is split into two. The northern half of it belongs to the town of Talisay while the southern half is for San Nicolas. The Taal Lake is also surrounded by the towns of Balete, Santa Teresita, Alitagtag, Talisay, Tanauan, Cuenca and MataasnaKahoy. The whole of Volcano Island was declared by the PHIVOLCS ( Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology) as a Permanent Danger Zone. They prohibited any settlement in the said island. But despite all of that, there are still are some people who are risking their lives by residing in the area. Most of these are poor families who make a living through fishing and farming in the volcano’s rich soil.
    There are 33 eruptions of the Taal volcano recorded in the history of Philippines since 19572. The first was in 1572 when Augustinian friars established Taal town. The second was a mild eruption taking place in 1591 which featured great masses of smoke coming from the crater. But during 1605 to 1611 the volcano was having great activities. Out of fear Father Torna de Abreu erected a huge wooden cross on brink of its crater.
    The center of activities transferred from the crater to other parts of the island itself between 1707 and 1731. In 1715 the eruptions ensued in the BinitiangMunti crater. Also minor eruptions occurred from this crater to the western end of the island in the years 1709 and 1729. On September 24, 1716, a very violent activity occurred destroying the whole southeastern parts of the crater located at the opposite of Mount Macolod. Another remarkable eruption was the 1731 activity where the explosion itself created an island at eastern side of the island. The greatest known eruption of Taal Volcano occurred in 1754. It lasted for 200 days from May 15 to December 1.
    After the year 1754 the Taal remained silent for a period of 54 years. Although it had minor activities 1790, the volcano did not erupt violently until March 1808. This eruption was as great as the 1754 eruption. It dramatically changed the shape of the crater’s interior. It had widened the crater and reduced the pond inside it. The crater walls also has diminished due to this powerful eruption.
    Recently, since 1977 the volcano has remained quiet again. But there have been signs of minor activities in 1991 presenting seismic and ground fracturing. There are also mud pots and geysers seen across the island taking formation. Because of this the PHIVOLCS has been issuing notices about seismic unrest warning the few people living in Taal.

    The Mount Mayon is a volcano that has an exact symmetrical cone. It is called the "perfect cone". The location of the volcano is at the province of Albay in Luzon. The perfect cone has an elevation of 8,081 ft with a prominence of 8,028 ft. As an active volcano its last eruption was on the year 2010. Mayon can be found at the tip or within the boundary of Legazpi City. In the year 2000 it was developed into a national park. It is also nicknamed as Bulkang Magayon after the legend of "Daragang Mayon".
    The perfect cone of the volcano was formed by layers of lava flows and eruptions that it has gone through in the past years. It is included in the Pacific Ring of Fire like other volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. The volcano is situated in the east side of Luzon with a position close to the Philippine Trench or the boundary wherein the Sea Plate is placed right under the Mobile Belt. When these plates collide with the oceanic plate it is driven down towards the Earth’s mantle. Magma enters and finds a way through exit points such as the Mount Mayon through those gaps in the crust created by the collision of plates.
    For over 400 years Mayon Volcano has erupted 48 times. It is the most active volcano in the Philippines. Its most vicious eruption ever recorded was on February 1, 1814 when the volcano spitted black ashes continuously until it buried Cagsawa town. It is the most fatal explosion as its casualties rose to 2,200 Albay residents. There are theories that this explosion triggered the eruption in Mount Tambora the following year which led to the “Year Without Summer” of 1816.
    As for the longest eruption without any interruption the Mayon volcano spitted fire for seven days starting on June 23, 1897. It erupted eastward so that Bacacay Village was buried 49ft under the lava. This eruption took 100 lives in Libon and another 400 from the other surrounding villages.
    Fortunately in the 1984 eruption an estimated number of more than 70,000 people were evacuated from danger zones before the volcano erupted. There were low casualties also in the 1993 eruption compared to past eruptions as only 77 were killed most of which were farmers.
    It was the same with the 2006 eruption which has no record of any loss of life. It is reported though that the said eruption was now weaker than the past. But some scientists still believe that the rumblings and activities that Mount Mayon is going through constantly from 2006 to 2011 are all part of a possibly more destructive eruption somewhere in the future.
    Legends were offered by the people in an attempt to provide answers to the mysterious origin of Mayon. According to them there used to be a princess who had a very possessive uncle named Magayon. Men were so afraid to court the girl because of her uncle. One day a warrior got so obsessed with the princess. He was so much in love that he convinced her to go with him to a faraway place. With Magayon in pursuit the princess and the warrior prayed for help from the gods. Suddenly there came a landslide which buried Magayon alive. Local folks believe that it is Magayon's anger which bursts out from the Mount's cone.

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    The Makahiya Plant is a very interesting species of plant found in the Philippines. It has a variety of nicknames associated with it due to its unique characteristics. Its scientific name is Mimosa pudica but others call it the sensitive plant or the” touch me not”. The Makahiya plant is a perennial herb. It has compound leaves that sticks together and closes in whenever it is touched or when it is shaken. Afterwards it takes a few minutes for it to unfold its leaves.      When it is young, its stems stand erect but then it trails as it matures. It is slender and mildly pricky. Usually it is 5 ft tall. Its leaves are bipinnate by nature consisting of up to 26 leaves per pinna. Its petals are red with pink filaments or sometimes lavender. The plant achieves its pollination by the help of winds and insects.      The Makahiya plant is similar to other species of plants. During the night its foliage closes but opens in daylight. But aside from that its leaves have other stimuli which make it close down. It reacts to touch, wind or any sort of vibration. The decrease of turgor pressure is what causes such reactions. Turgor pressure is the force which the waters within the cell vacuoles apply to its walls. Whenever Makahiya is touched the stems get stimulated and releases chemicals resulting in the closing movement of its leaves. Other explanations say that it is also a way of the plant to defend itself from insects that are harmful.     The Makahiya have had other names such as the humble plant, chuimui (Urdu word for “to die when touched) or the ant plant. It has been called the Makahiya in the Philippines which means “a tendency to be shy”. Though it is slender and gentle in its figure, the Makahiya plant is a harmful weed which may cause troubles for crops such as corns, sugar cane, papaya, bananas, cotton and coffee. Research has shown that these plants have nitrogen fixing bacteria living in them.     The Makahiya plant has a famous old legend in the Philippines. According to old stories, there once lived a wealthy couple who had a very kind daughter. Her name was Maria and she had all kinds of good traits in personality and character. But along with those good assets was an intense shyness. Because of this she had a trouble speaking with other people and would avoid them even. And because of it too, she had made for herself a garden where she would spend most of her time.      One day, thieves came to the village and out of fear, Maria’s parents hid her in that garden and prayed for God’s protection. When the bandits arrived they took everything they could from her parents. They also knocked them down in the process. When her mother woke up, she went into the garden to look for Maria but she could not find her. Tired and hopeless she started to believe that the thieves took her daughter with them. But then she felt a flower on her feet. And looking down at it convinced her that it was Maria. She had turned into a flower as God answered their prayer to protect her. Her mother cried and each plant that was touched by her tears transformed them into the same flower. It was the same as Maria who was so shy.
    The Philippines experienced a remarkable event in the history of politics when a humble Mayor from Mindanao won the 2016 presidential election. There were five presidential aspirants during the race; two of them were Senators, the Vice – President, the DILG Secretary and the Mayor of Davao City. Who would think that a humble Mayor all the way from Mindanao would actually win via landslide with more than 16million of votes all over the country and even abroad? It was like the entire nation has finally united to support him. It was even unexpected that this candidate managed to won the race since other contenders were actually considered to be more prominent than him and one has the administration’s support.      During the campaign period, the humble mayor made it clear to the public that he has nothing, that he has no money or campaign funds to make it to the presidential post. The only thing that he has and what he holds on to is his love for the country and to his fellow Filipinos. It was indeed true that he has no money and it wasn’t staged at all. But how did this man able to reach every corner of the country having no money? The answer lies within every Filipino who believes and has faith for him to restore our nation. An overflowing support of donations came in to help this candidate. People from different places campaigned for him for free. Some took the initiative to print shirts with his face, create stickers and other usual paraphernalia. However unlike other candidates, he has no definite campaign poster designs because it all depends on his supporters. This may sound humorous but despite the differences people should their great aspiration for this person.      For the first time in the Philippine History someone with a genuine concern won the presidential race having nothing but a pure intention to perform genuine public service to this nation. This is the main people supported him. With his clean and outstanding track record as a public servant for quite a number of years, majority of the people junked their doubts about him. What he did to the city of Davao is the most obvious and clear statement of what he is capable of doing.      Indeed the people finally realized that now is the time to support and be part of a greater change for the entire nation. There were a huge number of voters who turned themselves for registration when they learned the possibility that this person would soon run for president. It wasn’t even clear yet but people from all walks of life decided to become a registered voter just to give him their support. No other candidate was able to do that. His charisma and his strong will to deliver this country into glory were absolutely remarkable and from then on, the Philippines will never ever forget the name Rodrigo “Digong” Duterte. President Rodrigo Duterte, the president of the people who has always been for the people.   
    Finally you decided to apply for a passport because you want to go on a trip outside the country. Or you would just want to avail of the privilege that the government offers to its people. Nonetheless whatever reasons you got, you need to prepare the following documents for you to surely have your passport. The DFA announced that it takes 20 days for the normal processing of passport documents; meanwhile a person has the option if he or she wants it to be rushed but with additional fee and it will only take 10 days for it to be released. The normal processing requires you to pay P950.00, meanwhile rush job is at P1200.00. If you already booked a plane ticket (which is actually not advisable not unless you have already your passport approved) it is better to choose the rush option.     First things first, you have to set an appointment online if you wish for a hassle-free processing of your application. Visit the DFA website and follow the instructions given. Another tip, as much as possible be consistent in filling the information being asked. All of the information in your online application should match the details in your birth certificate, such as your father’s middle name and your mother’s maiden name. There are instances wherein you know that some of the details in your birth certificate were misspelled or written incorrectly, however you never tried to have it fixed, then you should leave it as it is in filling up your application form.      Below are actually the things or documents that you need to prepare and present during your personal appearance at the DFA office.      •    A lot of people got confused with the requirements because some of the needed supporting documents were not specified at all. These are actually what they meant by SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS:     •    You need to bring any 2 of these SUPPORTING documents during your appearance in the DFA office. (DFA specified to bring at least 1 valid ID, however when I personally tried to apply, they required me to give two (2) government issued ids)     Although it has been stated that you just have to choose any of the two, it is better to be prepared and secure all possible documents in case of any problem in the future.      Lastly, how about the passport size picture? The answer is NO. You actually don’t need to provide a passport size picture because your photo will be taken during your appearance at the DFA office. You might want to wear something with collar because if not, you have to wear something like a top that has a collar on it provided by the DFA office. It is actually the last step of your application. 
    If you are fond of shopping online for sure you have come across posts or pages selling bags, shoes, jewelries, cosmetics and other sort of trendy things. These items became really salable because sellers would claim that they have way cheaper prices compared to those items sold in malls. A buyer with a limited amount of money would sure go for a budget-friendly deal believing that he or she would get the same item being sold in malls. Other seller would even label their products as “authentic overruns” or “original overruns”.      What else should a buyer know if an item is labeled as an authentic overrun aside from the lower price it has? The truth is there is actually no such thing as “authentic overrun”. It’s just between an original one and a fake one. Yes, overruns are considered fake or counterfeit products. In support to the overrun claim, others would say that the products they are selling did not match or pass the quality standards and so they are being sold in cheaper prices. These products are still made from the original material but has some sort of imperfections and are not included in items delivered in malls and other authorized distributors. This claim sounds really convincing right?      In counterfeit items or imitations there are still classifications in terms of quality. The one considered to be the closest to the original is called an overrun, next is a replica, and it is followed by class A, class B and so on. There are some items that are really sturdy and have great quality, almost the same with the original. The price difference does matter, and if you are going to conduct a research, almost all online stores have the same price range for items. This means, their products came from the same source or the supplier for these items is the same.      There is nothing wrong in buying these kinds of stuff, who would want to spend more money if can spend less and have the item that you really like? However it is best to know the value of what you are buying for. Don’t get fooled by those sellers telling you that they are selling original items. Also, the price range for overrun items are almost the same, so don’t get fooled if you saw an item that you like in a much higher price compared to what you saw, thinking that, that  must be the original one. If the price is 50%-70% lower compared to malls, then it must have been an overrun or a replica.   
    Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban.     All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain.      The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines.     Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario.     The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years.     The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.

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People come in all shapes and sizes, even down to our faces. The right frame for the right face shape can dramatically change your whole look. How will you know what your face shape is? Easy! Just go in front of a mirror and use an erasable marker to trace the outline of your reflection.       There are 7 basic face shapes, each having different features that would help you narrow down on your choice. It’s all about balance. Find frames that are opposite to your face shape, frames that don’t accentuate your shape but help enhance it. Here are a few tips to remember:     a.    Oval – Lucky you! They say this is the best shape to work on because of its natural symmetry and balance. You can literally wear any style with ease and confidence. TRY: Any Style & Wide frames. Play around with different frames that will suit your personality. Just aim for a frame width that’s just enough to match the widest part of your face. AVOID: Too Small or Short frames.     b.    Round – Most people with round faces tend to look cute and youthful, with its proportional width and length, full cheeks and a soft chin line and forehead. TRY: Small, Square, Angular frames. Always go for opposite shapes so as not to exaggerate your face shape but help give balance. Rectangular frames can make your face appear longer and thinner. AVOID: Rimless, Circular Glasses.     c.    Square – With a strong jaw, broad forehead, proportional in width and length, this type of face is highly fashionable as you can experiment with round frames like the legendary Harry Potter. TRY: Soft, Oval or Circular Frames. These help soften the angles of your face. Also, glasses that can sit on the bridge of your nose will help lengthen it. AVOID: Boxy Frames.     d.    Diamond – narrow forehead and jaw line, with wide or high cheekbones; you’re like the opposite of the round face. TRY: Rimless, Cat-eye or Oval Glasses. Round frames help soften the angles and contour of your face. Plus you get to play around with cat-eyes as they sweep up your face and help emphasize the assets of your face like the cheekbones.  AVOID: Boxy, Wide Frames. Best stay away from frames that could widen your cheeks more.     e.    Oblong – More like an elongated version of the oval. Your face would be longer than it is wide. TRY: Round or Square, Oversized Wide Frames. Like the oval, you can still rock almost any style you want! But make sure that they’re wider than your face and give it more depth. Low-bridged ones can help shorten your nose. AVOID:     Too Small or Short.     f.    Rectangular – The length of an oblong but with a strong hot-looking jaw line. TRY: Curvy, Oval Glasses, Oversized Wide Frames. The wider they are, the more flattering. AVOID: Rectangle Glasses.     g.    Heart (Base-up) or Triangle (Base-down) – This shape can either have a wide forehead but cute and delicate jaw or the opposite. TRY: Rimless Glasses (for hearts), Cat-eyes (for triangles). You’d look beautiful in thin, light-metal or clear plastic frames as these help balance your forehead. Cat eyes also help sweep it up for triangles. AVOID: Bold, Over-embellished frames.  
   Ever heard of the quote, “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper”? Though most of us would think it’s just an easy quote to remind us how we should eat everyday but strange enough, this proverb actually has scientific proof backing it up, especially the breakfast part. It’s not called “breakfast” for nothing; it essentially means you’re breaking the fast that you went through when you’ve gone to sleep. It’s what wakes your body up, significantly comprises a great portion of your day’s energy supply, nutrient intake, concentration and performance, and overall mood. Basically, your breakfast can make or break you for the rest of the day.       As they say, “you are what you eat”; this applies especially during the first meal of the day. That said; don’t eat breakfast just for the sake of eating breakfast. What you eat is also the most crucial part to remember. You’re better off NOT eating breakfast at all compared to eating an unhealthy one. So if you’re going to eat, eat a healthy breakfast compared to those common sugary ones (like doughnuts, pancakes, waffles, muffins, even fruit juices). Eating these may be easier and tempting as they give you that highly sought after jolt of energy, but that sudden spike will just as easily drop down and leave you tired, cranky and even hungrier than before. Why is that, you may ask? Food high in sugar and low in protein are easily digested. In fact, you could actually control your appetite if you eat first thing in the morning.      Studies have shown breakfast eaters are leaner and gain less weight compared to their non-breakfast-eating counterpart. This is because your hunger will dramatically curb for the rest of the day. You thought skipping those few calories in the morning is going to help you? Guess again. People set themselves up to eat more at lunch and throughout the day, and inevitably make bad food choices, if they choose to skip their first meal. As I’ll tell you, time and time again, breakfast is THE deal-breaker.     A well-balanced breakfast is comprised of the right combination of good carbs, fiber and protein. Good thing, you have a lot of options, like oat meals, eggs paired with good fruits like bananas, grapefruits, etc., wheat-infused meals, vegetables and berries. Watermelons are also a great way to rehydrate early in the morning. The internet is swarming with terrific ideas to help you expand your horizon. No matter what your option is, never ever miss out again on the most important chow time in your day.  
    Water: The one element planet Earth has that sets it apart from all the other planets in our system. This is also the reason why only our planet is able to sustain life, its surface covered with 71 percent water. The human body itself is roughly made up of 60% water; essentially more than half of our being is H2O, which is why it is so vital for us to keep hydrated. A person can survive up to a proverbial 40 days without food, but would be a goner in a week’s time without water.      The question is how much water is enough on a daily basis? Most people have grown up using the 8x8 rule, or in layman’s term, drinking eight (ounce) glasses of water per day, which would be half a gallon or about 2 liters. The funny thing is there’s not much evidence to back this myth up except it’s just easy to remember. In reality, you have to note that the actual amount depends on a lot of factors like age, weight, gender, how physically active you are, the weather, etc.     Studies have shown that the average adult male will need 3.7 liters of fluids per day, while females need 2.7 liters. Children and teens would be: 1 liter (5 glasses) for 5-8 year olds, 1.5 liters (7 glasses) for 9-12 year olds, and 2 liters (8 to 10 glasses) for 13+ years.      Another good question to ask is how can you tell if you’re drinking enough water? Simple: check your urine. If you’re not drinking enough, your urine will look yellowish or have an orange color. The best indication is when it has a clear or pale yellow color. Soft bowel movements are a good sign too.     Note that you don’t really have to wait feeling thirsty to drink. Your body is constantly using up water and thirst is your body’s way of telling you that you’re becoming dehydrated. The good thing is all forms of fluid you take in counts. This includes milk, juice, tea, and even coffee, though water is still the best. Fruits and vegetables are a great source too. That said, don’t drink while you’re taking a meal or munching on snacks. It can be tempting but doing so may cause bloating and indigestion, as the water will counteract with the digesting enzymes your body is producing. The best time to drink would be 15-30 minutes prior or after a meal.     No matter how busy you get, don’t ever forget to refill, no matter what the means. Keep a water bottle handy to remind you. Never underestimate a simple glass of water to charge up for the whole day. A healthier you is a better you.  
Communication is one of the key things that give our lives meaning in our stay here on Earth. With the advent of technology, the Internet we know today has been a very vital tool for this. Originally, in the 1950’s, the Internet was made for the military: to use computers in defeating the Soviet Union and its allies by an army networked together. Because of the immobility of computers back then, scientists were prompted to create a wireless network capable of linking to other networks of computers miles and miles away. And poof! It became the Internet! Forty years later, it may not have served its intended purpose back then, but like an invisible army, this same Internet has now conquered the entire globe and has kept on growing and innovating. It’s no wonder people are inevitably evolving with it as well.     Whether you’re a digital native or just learning the ropes, here’s a quick guide to the latest trends of some of the most popular apps known to man as of 2017:  1.    Facebook  With over 1 billion downloads up to this date, with its users on a constant love-hate relationship because of its constant update, Facebook has been here for 13 years, starting from 2004, and was founded by Mark Zuckerberg and colleagues. It is one of today’s leading social media apps where you can connect with friends and family, share photos and videos, and express yourself. Here’s the latest: •    Augmented Reality – AR is technology which combines virtual reality with our reality as it overlays digital text and objects on to the real world. Mark has just recently announced that they are developing augmented-reality (AR) glasses. •    In-App (AR) Camera Filters – Partly, one of the reasons why they have integrated new camera filters into the app is to help people get familiar and ease in the transition of this new tech. But the most part is that it’s just fun! This feature is jam-packed with effects like masks, frames and all sorts of stuff you can apply to your photos or videos.   2.    Instagram Also with a whopping 1 billion downloads, Instagram is now 7 years old. Created by Kevin Systrom for iOS in 2010 (and released an Android version in 2012), Instagram is a pretty straightforward app. As its namesake, you “instantly” share photos and videos publicly or privately. Here are its newest deals: •    New Direct – disappearing photos and videos will now appear alongside text messages and shared posts; in other words, your permanent and temporary shares can now be seen in one seamless thread, turning it into beautiful visual conversations. Simple as it is, the dev’s really took their time to make this a thing. •    Carousel Posts - in other words, Multiple Image Posts, which will allow you to make Insta-posts slide-showing up to 10 images/videos. It’s like posting a moving album!   3.    Snapchat Originally, Snapchat was first named “Picaboo” (cute, right?) as the intent was to make an app that will allow  “disappearing posts” or pictures and messages that are only available for a short amount of time and will auto-delete itself. I bet James Bond would love this app. Let’s take a look at what’s new with our little ghost: •    Snapchat Search – The search bar is now practically everywhere! On the chat and camera screen, and on Stories; this way it’ll be easier to find your contacts or even make new ones. •    Bitmoji Takeover – is your own personal emoji or avatar, and much like the search bar, Bitmoji is now all over the place… in chat, profile, and in search results. •    Global Snapchat Story – Story now goes global! You get to post and see stories from all around the world even if you’re not there where the Story was held.   4.    Twitter  Ever heard of that line, “A little bird told me”? I’m guessing that’s where Twitter got its inspiration for its phenomenal “tweets”, messages that only consist of 140 characters. Here you can get the latest scoops from news to entertainment and politics, you name it. Here are some of its latest updates:   •    Twitter Lite – a fast data-friendly version of this app for those who have slow connections, making it more accessible to all kinds of people. Plus, they’ve added a new Data Saver Mode to further cut down on the mobile data used. Through this mode, you only get a preview of images and videos and you simply click which ones you want to fully load.   •    Safety Upgrades – Twitter has been working overtime to ensure their consumers’ safety and privacy. The team addressed several issues on cyber-abuse, like identifying abusive content and stopping the creation of new abusive accounts, collapsing potentially abusive or low-quality tweets, etc. They also introduced a “safe search” where you can filter Tweets that may contain sensitive contents and Tweets from accounts you’ve blocked or muted.
Nowadays people can be deceived easily by what they can see in the internet. Some people just couldn’t comprehend that not all being posted online are true. Being popular is now equivalent to being an internet sensation. Lately, a new product innovation has been launched to the public and became really popular in no time. Once a product comes with amazing videos it will surely caught the attention of the people, not to mention the likes and shares that actually contribute to its popularity.     But how sure are you that what you saw and just shared in your account is actually true and legit? Let me introduce to you “Ooho” or the edible water which has gained millions of views all over the world through social media. People were greatly amazed of the concept of an edible water container as people are now very much conscious with the environment and nature.     It is absolutely a great idea however it is actually a bit unrealistic. Its goal is to replace the use of plastic bottles and save the environment. However It can never replace the traditional use of bottles. It can only be limited to gulp sizes. The container is edible which means you can ingest it right away, or slowly sip from it and consume the entire thing. Thus, you cannot have it in more than 500ml, and absolutely not in 1liter. So you have the usual sizes instead, but how are you going to secure it inside your bag? Or how long can you actually hold to it before you became thirsty again? And one more thing, how can you share it with someone else? Sharing your drink isn’t a question of being hygienic it is all about being convenient to its consumers.      Aside from being impractical, care also to check on its packaging. The company just defeats its purpose of getting rid or plastics and non-biodegradable materials, since Ooho comes in a plastic packaging, so actually it’s just the same thing. It’s a complete lie. Although the concept is really great but the means of delivering it isn’t the best option right now. Maybe they can collaborate with other companies creating biodegradable materials for its packaging.      The hype for Ooho is undeniably high right now, but people should try to educate themselves a lot more and check if it’s really something worth the amazement of if they are just being deceived with what they just saw.