The Philippines has caught the attention of several humanitarian groups because of the alleged extra judicial killings happening in the country. Those who are against of the present administration’s campaign to eradicate drugs all over the country raised their concerns up to the international or foreign bodies. Because according to them the Philippines is being managed under President Rodrigo Duterte’s dictatorship.

budajo masaccre


    In response to this call, there are indeed several international groups even the UN who immediately showed disagreement towards the Duterte administration without even validating the reports being brought to them. This is actually one of the biggest conflicts within this country. Media is no longer a source for credible and genuine news. The integrity of those who are working in media companies have been already stained because of their biased reporting. It has been already proven several times even during the campaign period. 

budajo masaccre


    During Duterte explained and defended his governance and the alleged extra judicial killings. In counter to what the critics and the international groups were saying, Duterte then showed photos of the Budajo. These photos were not even documented in Philippine history books. Majority of the Filipinos are not aware of the existence of this unfortunate event. Only few people knew about this and luckily the President is one of these people. He revealed the almost-forgotten sentiments of those people who were part of the said history. 

budajo masaccre


    Budajo, is one of the most bloody encounters of all time. Although this wasn’t documented, it remains in the memory of the Tausug Tribe who has kept in their memories up to now. There were pictures recovered of what actually happened during that time. It was absolutely a massacre were helpless individuals were slaughtered.  The tribe resisted the American colonization in return they did this to them. However it was not documented at all. Americans managed to build a false image of them being good to Filipinos. 


    This is the main reason why Duterte believes that there is strong and undying sentiments in Mindanao that very few people are aware of. Finally the time has come that it has been revealed to the public and how bloody it was for our brother and sisters. It was even suggested that history books for public schools must contain and cover the details of this horrific event and to make every Filipino appreciate and enrich his or her own culture rather than those of other races. 
 

    Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban.
    All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain. 
    The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines.
    Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario.
    The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years.
    The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.

    Until the discovery of the Callao Man, archaeologists used to believe that it was the Tabon Man who was the oldest and earliest man to have lived in the Philippines. The fossils of the Callao’s remains was discovered in Cagayan in Penablanca in the Callao Caves. It was found by Armand Salvador Mijares in the year 2007. 
    The discovery has produced a metatarsal, a group of bones which are located in mid and hind foot and somewhere near the toes. This metatarsus was about Sixty millimeters long. The find was dated through the use of a uranium series ablation, the most accurate dating method used by archaeologists. The results of the uranium shows that the bones were about 60-67,000 years old. If they were to prove the bones to belong to the Homo Sapiens then it would beat the Tabon Man and earn its place in the list as the earliest remains of man to be found in the Philippines. It also has the chance of being the oldest not only in the country but in the whole of Asia Pacific. Researchers has noted that the Callao Man had an average height of 4ft tall. 
    Researchers also believe that their descendants could be the Aetas who live in the mountains in the present in the Philippines. This is because of the possible features that emanate from their study of the metatarsal which suggests short height, curly hair and dark skin. 
    But the classification in terms of the biological of the Callao man became uncertain in July of 2010. This is because the metatarsal that was discovered was found out by researchers as belonging to the Homo genus species. These researchers speculate that Callao Man could either belong to the Homo florsiensis or the Homo Sapiens. Homo florsiensis are species which are distinct from men that is usually short in height and resides mostly on the islands of Indonesia. On the other hand, the Homo Sapiens are what is now known as the modern type of men. The researchers were becoming unsure of the genus of the bones due to the fact that they haven’t yet discovered a skull to fit the metatarsal. But Mijares was able to stress that the Callao Man was most probably an individual that has a small body.
    Theories show that the Callao Man and his group of humans originated from the country of Indonesia and came to Luzon by way of a raft. The researchers have noted that this theory fits to dated existence of the Callao Man when humans were not yet capable of travelling long distances and voyages. 
    This glaciations created isthmuses or land bridges that connected islands from other islands. According to the theory during the times of the Callao Man there were isthmuses that connected Philippines to all of Southeast Asia. 
In the present day, there have been no other researchers to find more on the bones of the Callao Man except those of Mijares’ group from the University of the Philippines.

    One of the most famous revolts in the Philippines is called the Dagohoy Revolution or also known as the Dagohoy Revolt. It is famous in Philippine history for being the longest of its kind. The rebellion was led by Francisco Sendrijas or better known as Francisco Dagohoy. The revolt happened in Bohol and lasted for 85 years from 1744 to 1829. It occurred in the Spanish era. The Dagohoy revolt was a sequel to a prior rebellion known as the Tamblot uprising which was headed by Tamblot in 1621. But the Tamblot revolution was a religious one because it was led by a native priest.
    The Dagohoy revolution was unlike the Tamblot revolution. It was not a spiritual rebellion but a conflict which was a retaliation to oppression, forced labor and too much tax collection and requests for tribute payments. To make matters worse, it was the Jesuit priests who headed these abuses.
    In the year 1744, Bohol was prepared for another fight against Spain because of its oppression. In the same yearm a Jesuit priest called Gaspar Morales commanded a constable named Sagarino to hunt a man guilty of abandoning Christianity. When the constable caught the man, the fugitive murdered him. When Sagarino was found he was brought to Morales for a Christian burial. But the priest refused to give it to him because according to the Church at that time, death by duel was banned from rights to a Christian burial.
    The brother of Sagarino was Francisco Dagohoy. He was furious when he heard of the news and searched and found his brother’s body. He then went to Morales and persuaded him to give his brother a proper Christian burial. But the priest denied him saying that Sagarino did not deserve it for dying in a duel. What made it worse was when the priest ordered for Sagarino’s corpse to be exposed in Inabanga for three days until it rots.
    This was the final straw to the Dagohoy revolution. It was Jesuits’ refusal to offer Christian’s brothers a burial even when the dead person died in service by chasing fugitives who fought Christianity. Because of this Dagohoy called on his fellow Boholanos to gather and fight against the oppressions. Spanish Governors and missions were outlasted by this rebellion.
    Today, the Dagohoy Rebellion is featured in Bohol’s provincial flag showing two bolos or the country’s native swords with hand guards drawn on top of them. The Dagohoy Revolution represents one of the swords while the Tamblot represents the other. It is a symbol that says that Boholanos would always rise and fight the oppressors whoever they may be.
    To honor Franscisco, one of the towns in Bohol was named Dagohoy after him. The name was proposed by Carlos P. Garcia who was a former Vice President of the country. Francisco Dagohoy is considered as a Boholano hero.

    The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from the grasp of the Spanish colony occurred on June 12, 1898. It was proclaimed in Cavite and was done through the announcement in public of the Act of declaration independence. On that day Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary forces was given the sovereignty of the country.
    The Declaration of Independence by Philippines was not an easy task for the Filipinos. It was a 3 year revolution which began in the year 1896. In those times the Spanish had sealed an agreement with the supporters of the revolution to send Emilio Aguinaldo to Hong Kong as an exile. But the Spanish-American war broke out where the Asiatic Squadron which belonged to the US NAVY sailed to Manila Bay from Hongkong. The fleet was led by Commodore George Dewey. Eventually, they defeated the Spanish through the help of the United States. The victory was declared on May 1, 1898 after the Battle of Manila Bay has decided the defeat of the Spanish colonizers. On the same month Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Philippines escorted by the U.S. Navy.
    The Proclamation ceremony occurred in the afternoon and at the familial house of the Aguinaldo family. Their house was located 30km South from Manila. In the ceremony the Philippine flag was spread out. The national flag was originally made from Hong Kong. The unfurling of the flag was then followed by the Marcha Filipina Magdalo being performed. It became the national anthem of the country and is now called Lupang Hinirang. San Francisco de Malabon was the name of the marching band which performed the anthem. It was all written by Julian Felipe.
    Meanwhile, it was Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who wrote, prepared and read the Act of the Declaration of Independence. He composed it and read it all in Spanish. About a hundred people signed the Declaration as witnesses to the proclamation. One of them was an American officer who also observed the ceremony. But later on the declaration was modified. Apolinario Mabini insisted upon it and was acted upon by the Malolos congress. They objected for the Philippines to be held under the influence of the United States in return for protection.
    Unfortunately the proclamation had to go through rough times. It was not recognized by the U.S. and Spain. But at the defeat of the Spanish to the Americans, Philippines was yielded to the US as part of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As a retaliation, the treaty was not recognized by the Philippine Revolutionary Government. This resulted in what is known as the Philippine-American war. But the Philippines lost to the U.S. This happened when the U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was persuaded then to sign and agree to hand over the sovereignty of the country. On July 2, 1902 it was telegraphed by Elihu Root, U.S. Secretary of War, that all provincial governments were successfully established all over the Philippines. He added that the only exception were those places occupied by the tribes of the Moros. They have been resisting the U.S. forces for a number of years.
    The National Library of Philippines currently houses the Declaration. Just like any other document in the said library, the Declaration requires permission for it to be seen by viewers. It is a series of declarations of independence which consists also of the United Statse Declaration of Independence.

    In 1937, General MacArthur married with Miss Faircloth. And on December of the same year he retired from military service but went on to live in Manila. But Roosevelt regionalized the Philippine Army on July 26, 1941. He then reassigned MacArthur to stand as major general of the American Army naming Douglas as commander of the USAFFE. Within a day, Macarthur’s promotion to lieutenant was proclaimed. Afterwards he was promoted on December 20, 1941 as a general. Other known officers were also promoted during that time. Sutherland became major general and Hugh Casey became brigadier general. By July 31, 1941 over twenty two thousand troops had been assigned by the Philippine Department. 
    General Douglas MacArthur’s famous ‘’I shall return’’ speech were a result of his escape from one of the most famous battles in the history of the Philippines known as the Fall of Bataan. In December 8, 1941 MacArthur was informed by Sutherland of the ambush on Pearl Harbor. Gen. George Marshall gave MacArthur orders to continue the original Rainbow Five war plan. But Douglas refused to follow the order. There were also requests of permission to hit bases owned by the Japanese from an Air Force commander but all were denied. They were confused on what to do next because of the attack that happened on Pearl Harbor. At noontime, Japanese Air crafts surprised and bombarded Clark Field and bases at the Iba Field and in a few days the US Air Force were all destroyed.
    When the defense plans failed to stop the Japanese from taking Manila, the Filipino and U.S. Forces were called to retreat and bring all the war supplies to Bataan. MacArthur tried to lessen the Japanese speed in advancing but changed his mind when he saw the quick advancement of the Japanese and their superiority in battle against the Filipino troops. He called everyone to retreat to the Bataan peninsula to wait for reinforcements there. On December 24, 1941 the declaration of Manila as an open city was announced.
    On the next day, MacArthur had to transfer his headquarters to the fortresses of Corregidor due to the destruction of nearly all of the USAFFE bases. Many of the headquarters started to go for Bataan to leave MacArthur. Although the Filipino and Americans knew they were hopeless they still fought the Japanese. Some of them blamed MacArthur because of the failure but others believed he would find a way to get them out of the mess. 
    The Japanese Army gradually neutralized most of the defenders of the Philippines on February in 1942. On the same year President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to move to Australia. He left with his family and major general Sutherland in PT boats away from Corregidor on March 12, 1942. They were received by B-17s and flew off to Australia. On March 20, 1942 he made his famous speech to return to the Philippine Islands. He was told by Washington to change the “I” on his statement to “we” but MacArthur refused it. In his speech he said, “ I came through and I shall return” stressing his resolve to redeem the Philippines from its enemies.  Meanwhile, after a series of battles, Bataan fell to the hands of the Japanese Army.
    October 1944 gave MacArthur the chance he’d been waiting for. On the 20th of that month, and after efforts to be summoned by Roosevelt to Philippines, General Douglas was finally back in the Philippines. He landed on Leyte with the Sixth Army of Krueger’s troops where they waded on foot in the waters of the Leyte beach. He also made another famous speech where he reassured the Filipinos of his promise to eradicate their enemies once and for all. And after two months, the Japanese Army lost Leyte to the US Army.

    The City of Cagayan de Oro is also the capital of Misamis Oriental. It is also the regional center of Northern Mindanao. Tourists and travelers from time to time flock the city. Because of this, it is titled as the city of golden friendship. Ironically, before the peace, it went through a tiresome war that made its mark in the history of the Philippines.
    For 276 years the Spanish Colonizers dominated the Philippines. But on the 10th of December 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed by the United States and Spain in Paris. In the treaty it was agreed that the country would handed over to the Americans in return for a payment. The amount paid to Spain by the Americans was 120,000,0000 dollars. In other words, Philippines was bought by the United States from Spain.
    In Cagayan de Oro, the Americans’ arrival was much received with restiveness and hostility by the Kagay-anons. They did not agree to the occupation of the US. And so a revolutionary group called “ Tercios Revolucionarios” was created and organized by the people of Cagayan. Its main leaders were people who are prominent even in today’s times. These people included known names in Cagayan de Oro such as Apolinar Velez, Nicanor Capistrano, Roa Y. Racines, Tirso Neri, and Cayetano Pacana.
    The prominent leaders of this organization purposefully trained and prepared the Kagay-anons mentally and physically. Their main goal was to resist and push back the Americans from entering their town. But there was a setback to their plans as they have realized. Their men had only bolos and some rifles as weapons to fight the Americans. But nevertheless, these were the men who fought in the famous April 7, 1900 battle and that of Macahambus.
    The invasion of Cagayan de Oro by the Americans came on 31 March 1900. They first bombarded the town and burned the flag of Macabalan. The fighters of the Tercios Revolucionarios were already prepared and trained even before the invasion came. But they waited until April 7 to attack the Americans. Their army was headed by General Nicolas Capistrano. Originally, they were camped at Gagno plateau at Bukidnon which is located 9km from Cagayan. 
    The ringing of San Agustin Church’s bell was the go signal for them to attack the Americans when they arrived. The Revolucionarios attacked in a systematized wave. The first wave were men with bolos only as weapons. Then next to them were the riflemen. They were then followed by cavalrymen. Their main plan was to make a sneak attack on the American soldiers. But because some of the macheteros(men with bolos) shouted battle cries, their plan was foiled.
    The Americans were quick to react to the battle cries of the natives carrying bolos and so there raged a battle between the well-armed Americans and the Revolucionarios. When Gen. Capistrano realized impending defeat, he ordered for a retreat. The most intense fighting happened in the town’s plaza, which is now called the Gaston Park. But the Kagay-anons stood no chance against the Americans. After an hour they were defeated and the remnants of the Revolucionarios were chased away from the city.
    Even with so little hope of winning, the Revolucionarios fought with much valiance. But still they were defeated. When peace returned to Cagayan de Oro, Tirso Neri became its first Mayor. There he ordered the opening of Divisoria.

    The Philippine National Flag is horizontal in shape. It has a bicolor of the blue at the top and scarlet red at the bottom. On its hoist is a white triangle which is equilateral too. This triangle has a golden yellow sun consisting of eight rays. Each of the rays represents the provinces of the country which started the 1896 Revolution of the Philippines against Spain. The triangle also has three golden stars with five points representing the 3 main islands of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. War is indicated when the flag is displayed with the blue side at the bottom and the red on top.
    The construction of the flag follows rules in terms of its measurements. The stars on the other hand should be oriented in such a way that its tips would be pointing to the vertex where it is located. Also, the gap-angle between the 8rays should be equivalent to the angle one ray angle. Finally, the sun should not be placed at the exact center but should be shifted a little to the right of the triangle.
    Meanwhile, every part of the Philippine National Flag is a symbol which represents meaning to the country. The rectangular design and equilateral triangle represents equality and fraternity. The blue stripe on top symbolizes peace, truth and justice. And red stripe then represents patriotism and valor. The eight rays of the sun symbolize the provinces which sparked the 1896 revolution. These are namely the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite and Manila. 
    However, the 1898 Proclamation Philippine Independence gave a symbolism of the flag which differed from the current one. At that time for example, the white triangle represented the crest of the Katipunan, a secret society opposing the Spaniards. The colors of the flag too represented another meaning signifying the commemoration of the American flag as a sign of gratitude for their protection of the Filipinos against the Spaniards in the Philippine Revolution. 
    The first National flag of the Philippines was sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo. She was assisted by the niece of Jose Rizal Delfina Herbosa de Natividad and Marcela’s daughter Lorenza. This flag was officially displayed for war in May 28, 1898. On June 12, 1898 the flag was formally raised in Kawit, Cavite as the proclamation of independence was declared. 
    The flag’s design had gone through a phase of change. Originally, the sun on the flag had a mythical effect to it by having a face. It was a common symbol to Spanish colonies. There have also been controversies about the color of the flag because some historians argue that it was the same shade used in the flag of Cuba. It is also true that at some degrees the Cuba revolution against Spain helped shape the Philippine Revolution. The current and modern design of the flag came from the President Emilio Aguinaldo. He conceptualized the idea while he was in Hong Kong on 1897 in exile.

    In his mission to try to find a westward route to the Moluccas Islands for Spain, Ferdinand Magellan discovered Samar on March 16, 1521. The next day his ships anchored in the shores of Homonhon. The chieftains of Limasawa Rajah Kulambu and Rajah Siagu received Magellan’s arrival with hospitality. They and their queens converted into the Catholic faith and guided him to Cebu. As an honor Magellan gave them the Santo Nino as a gift and also to mark their alliance. Because of Magellan’s influence on Rajah Humabon, nearby chiefs were ordered to convert to Christianity and to supply Magellan’s ships with food. All of the chiefs complied with the order except the two Datus of Mactan of which one was Datu Lapu-Lapu who was very stern in his refusal to accept Christianity. According to the written records of Magellan’s chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, the second chief sent his son to Magellan to explain to him that he would have met the terms and orders of the King of Spain to convert and provide food had it not been for Lapu-Lapu’s disagreement.
    The Datus Rajah Humabon and Zula heard of the opposition and advised Magellan to join forces with him and the other chieftains and use power in persuading Lapu-Lapu to comply with the orders. The Captain saw this as an opportunity to strengthen his ties with the ruler and agreed to help him. Antonio Pigaffeta’s accounts in the journey narrates that Magellan made efforts to convince Lapu-Lapu to follow Rajah Humabon’s orders the night before their encounter but didn’t succeed.
    In the midnight of April 27, 1521, 70 armored men along with Magellan and the Chieftains sailed towards Mactan riding the balanguais, a type of Filipino boat, at about 20 to 30 in number and arrived hours before dawn. The captain tried a last effort in persuading Lapu-Lapu by sending one of the natives to tell him to obey the King of Spain and pay their tributes or else they will be forced to use their lances. But the reply they received was that if they had lances, Lapu-Lapu’s men had bamboos sharpened and toughened with fire. According to Pigaffeta it was part of their strategy when they asked Magellan not to attack immediately and to let the morning come so that they may have more men. He said that they said that in order to tempt them to look for Lapu-Lapu’s men because they have dug trap holes for them to fall on to while they searched.
    In April 28, Magellan set out and 50 armed men went towards Mactan. Unfortunately, the corals of the beach forced them to anchor their ship far from the shores of the island so that they had to walk in the water for a time before they got to the island. Also, because of the distance, Magellan had no choice but to leave his Howitzers behind which he intended to use on the warriors of Lapu-Lapu which ranged in an estimate of 1,000 plus men.
    The battle started when Magellan and his men neared the island. They saw that the army of Lapu-Lapu divided into three groups. When the warriors saw the foreigners, they started screaming and rushing towards them. For half an hour the Spaniards kept shooting their crossbows but to no avail. Lapu-Lapu and his men eventually came into contact with them as Magellan and his men came into the island.
    Pigaffeta wrote that Magellan meant to scare the warriors by burning their houses. Instead this provoked them more and they became furious and started attacking resulting in the death of some of his men. When a poisoned arrow hit Magellan in the right leg, he gave the order to retreat slowly but they all ran away except 8 of them including Pigaffeta who escorted the captain. Lapu-Lapu’s men targeted their legs because they had no armor in that part of their body. Magellan himself received a blow in the leg from a kampilan(a long edged Muslim sword) and a spear in the arm. He was able to kill a warrior with his lance but his injuries made him weak and was finally outnumbered and stabbed and killed by the mob all at once. It was said in Pigaffeta’s records that Magellan resisted the force in order for his men to make it safely to the boat. When they got aboard the ship they saw them behead Magellan.
Datus Humabon and Zula did not participate in the battle because of Magellan’s request for them not to. They observed from a distance and after the battle negotiated with Lapu-Lapu to return his corpse in exchange for merchandise. But Lapu-Lapu refused and up until now Magellan’s remains were never recovered. It is said that the soldiers who survived the battle of Mactan were poisoned in a feast given by Humabon resulting in the order of Juan Sebastian del Cano,successor of Magellan, to depart immediately and return to Spain in fear of Humabon’s betrayal.
    In the Philippines, Lapu-Lapu is known as the first National Hero to fight against outside forces. Whatever the accounts were, it is true that he did succeed in his refusal to acknowledge a foreign king as his ruler.

    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.
    The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.
    The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored. 
    Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.
    The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.
    The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.

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       If you have been surfing the net for a quick and effective way to lose weight then this article is for you. Cutting off those excess fats is necessary not just because it is pleasing to the eyes but because having a normal weight or normal body index is the key to remain healthy and free from illnesses and other health complications.                 Almost all types of diet plans are being introduced to the market. There are some in form of drink, coffee, candy, and many more. However none of these have truly proven to work in general. It is because each individual has his or her own mechanism in digesting food and metabolism which is responsible in regulating body weight. Aside from the uncertainty of patronizing dietary supplements such as pills, it is best to go organic and change your eating habits particularly your food plan. The best thing about choosing the natural way of losing weight is that it saves you from harmful chemicals and possible exposure to side effects.                 The most common and most abundant resources to actually lose weight is none other than water. Yes, water is actually capable of making you lose weight. All you have to do is follow a certain daily schedule. But before that, what’s with water and that it can actually help in weight loss?                 The most common reason why people result to obesity or consuming too much amount of food is due to a very active appetite. Well, water in connection is actually good in suppressing your appetite. The more you crave for food the more you should drink water. By this, water can immediately fill in your stomach preventing you from having craving episodes. Although this may sound painful, sometimes your cravings are all in your head, the more you think about it the more you become hungry. Learn to control your thoughts if you really want to lose weight.                 As much as possible forget about your usual drink such as sodas, beer, and other carbonated drinks. Replace them with water in the morning, lunch, afternoon, and lastly even during dinner. Remember that water can only do its purpose if you allow it to happen.                As much as possible choose to drink cold water instead of hot. Cold water can actually trigger your metabolism to work well because it will require your body to heat up or warm up, thus it promoted in burning more calories.                 Water is also known to rehydrate your body. But how do you rehydrate if you are properly hydrated? This means that you must undergo physical activities and burn those calories and rehydrate using water. By doing so, you are flushing those toxic materials inside your body in the form of sweat.
    If you spend some of your free time scrolling your Facebook newsfeed you have probably came across with different exciting and intriguing make-ups deals that are way cheaper than its normal price. There are lots of make-up enthusiasts that will surely grab this kind of opportunity to hoard their favorite make-up essentials. However isn’t it quite intriguing and quite suspicious how come they are sold way cheaper compared to those sold in malls? If tax and building costs were the sole reason why these products are more affordable you should think twice and do the math.     You should be careful in shopping online, you should not watch out for scammers but as well as counterfeits. Yes, counterfeit make-ups actually exist. If a certain online seller claims that the items they sell are Singapore authentic, you should see this as a red sign. There is no such thing as Singapore Authentic. It goes the same with perfumes and other cosmetic stuff.     The horrible thing about these counterfeits is that, you will never know what chemical did the manufacturers used in creating those products. It can cause serious illness and other health problems. You indeed save a little by choosing the cheap ones, but upon getting sick, you will surely double your expenses for medicines.      According to some statements, such products can actually cause irritation in skin even during first use, especially for those who have sensitive skin. So just imagine using a fake eye shadow? Imagine the damage that it could actually bring to your eyes. It is never wise to support counterfeits products. Some people would just want to make money out of other people’s desire to be beautiful.      If you are really hooked with make-up and you think you can never survive without it, you better change your mind in choosing what products to use. There are indeed cheaper make-ups but are still authentic. Normally, the prices for these items are like 20% - 30% cheaper compared to those sold in malls. However counterfeits are like 80% -90% cheaper, so by this you should be alarmed already.
    The Tubbataha name originates from a Samal word which means “a large reef bare to the low tides”. Because of their nomadic lifestyle the Samal people of the sea frequently visited the large reef and would live there temporarily.      The Tubbataha Reef of the Sulu Sea in the Philippines is an atoll reef which means that it is a coral island with a lagoon in the middle of its body. Located 180km southeast from Puerto Princesa, a trip to the coral island is a 12-hour long ride by a boat.  The reef has two main parts. The smaller of the two coral islands is located in the southern part having 5kilometers in length and 3kilometers wide. The larger one or also called the North Atoll has a length of 2kilometers and is 5kilometers in width. So far, there has been no permanent inhabitant living in the area. Fishermen only come and build shelters in the area by seasons. Tourists and divers would also visit the reef due to the fact that it has gained the reputation of being the best site for diving in the Philippines.The coral reef is popular for its walls that immediately ends and gives way to great depths. Divers find it wonderful to dive in from them. Various colonies of fish also dwell on the wonder of these walls.  Parrotfish, hammerhead sharks, manta rays, napoleon wrasse and barracudas are some of which have been reported to be living in it. There are also some reports of whale and tiger sharks seen in the corals. The Tubbataha has over a thousand species many of which are endangered inhabiting its reef. Some of which are the lionfish, clownfish and hawksbill sea turtles. Its ecosystem is so diverse that it has been said to rival that of the marine life found the Great Barrier Reef. Recent researches show that it has an estimate of about 400 to 600 coral and fish species.     The Tubbataha Reef of Palawan is now called the Tubbataha National Marine Park. What makes it remarkable is its enormous size. In the year 1988 of August it was established as having an area of 82thousand acres. Later in 2006, its boundary was further increased by executive order to 200% by then president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. At present the PCSD (Palawan Council for Sustainable Development and DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) is responsible for its technical supervision.     The Tubbataha Seasons are those months when the waves are considered to be more safe and calm. It is also the season when divers and tourists visit the spot in large numbers. Travelers would fill the area especially during the Easter and the Golden Week of the Asian holidays. It has been advised that visitors would do well to book trips right after or somewhere in the middle of April as strong waves are still present during those days which may cause troubles for diving excursions and visibility in underwater.
    It is a bizarre geological formation which consists of at least 1,260 hills.  Each hill is covered with green grass which turns to brown in the dry season making it look like chocolates. The images of these hills are marked in Bohol’s provincial flag and seal as a symbol of prosperity.   Because of its fame among tourists, the Chocolate Hills were added in the list of Philippine Tourism Authority’s tourist destinations. It is also considered as the third National Geological Monument of the Philippines.     The Chocolate hills are all dome-shaped and symmetrical in shape. They differ in sizes some from 30-50 meters high. Each of these hills is made of limestone covered by grass. It is also estimated to have 1,268 up to 1,776 mounds making up the whole group of hills which are scattered in Carmen, Sagbayan and Batuan towns. The hills got its name from the color it turns to during dry seasons-chocolate brown. This is due to the drying leaves of the grass covering it. The Chocolate hills would look like endless giant dome chocolates lined up as far as the eye can see during the summer.     The Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum spontaneum, and Compositae are the species of grass which grows on these hills. Groups of ferns can also be found covering the layers. The cultivation of rice is mainly found in between each hill. Because of quarrying activities, these vegetations are now threatened.     The Chocolate Hills has some legends explaining the origin of the Chocolate Hills. The first one explains that there used to be two giants who fought and hurled rocks and giant boulders at each other. When they grew tired they reconciled and left the place forgetting to clean up. Another legend has it that a giant called Arogo cried so much for the death of a beloved mortal so much that the Chocolate Hills were formed. The third legend claims that it was a giant carabao eating all of the town’s crops. The townsfolk planned and fed the giant with spoiled food and so it has defecated large mounds. These mounds then dried up turning into the Chocolate Hills.     But whatever the legends say, a more scientific explanation could be found and read at a viewing deck located in Carmen, Bohol. The plaque explains that the hills were originally marine limestone underneath which is hardened clay. The shapes turned into what it is today due to constant rain, erosion and coral uplifting.     Because of its special characteristics in terms of science and tourism, the chocolate hills were declared as a National Geological Monument in June 18, 1988 by the National Committee on Geological Sciences. And on July 1, 1997 President Fidel Ramos signed the Proclamation No.1037 which gave more protection to the site. This proclamation established the need to preserve and maintain the chocolate hills. It also established strategies to avoid illegal exploitations of the tourist landmark.     At present there are two ways to view the Hills of Bohol. One is to go to the “Chocolate Hills Complex” and another is at the “Sagbayan Peak”.
    The Rafflesia comes from the major family of flowering plants which are parasitic. It has an estimate of 28 main species which could be found in Southeast Asian countries one of which is the Philippines. Rafflesia was first discovered in an Indonesian rain forest. It was found by Dr. Joseph Arnold’s guide in 1818. The plant though got its name from the leader of that expedition. His name was Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. The Rafflesia was originally found in between years 1791-94 by Louis Deschamps but according to history his notes bout it were captured by the British.     The plant has a unique body which is void of stems, leaves nor does it have roots. Instead it only consists of an absorptive organ which is located inside the vine. It belongs to the holoparasite vines of the Vitaceae. On the outside the plant looks like a flower with five large petals around its body. The size of the Rafflesia in diameter is 100cm with a weight of 22pounds. Aside from looking rotten there emanates from it a rotten smell which is why it has many local names. Some call it the “rotten flower” and others would name it the “meat flower” because it looks like meat. Remarkably, the rotten smell of the flower draws insects to it.      There are two general species of the Rafflesia. The first one is the Malaysian and the other is the Philippine species. In 2002, Filipino scientists set out for myriads of research activities where they discovered various species of the Giant Flower. The first Rafflesia was discovered in Antique Province on the mountains. Its features were unique compared to all other species that were found. By 2005, the next rafflesia was found in Compostela Valley of Mindanao. It had an equal size with that of the first rafflesia having a size of 50-65 centimeters in diameter.     In 1991 a collection of Rafflesia species were found but were not given names. In 2006 Danny Balete collected them all and studied them to find out that they were different from the R.manillana found in Luzon. Thus it was given the name R. baletei. In the following year another group of species was found by Dr. Julie Barcelona in Bukidnon. Another was found on the same year in Mount Banahaw of Luzon. Every year since 2002 scientists would find new species of this giant flower from different cities and provinces of the country. Until in 2010 the tenth Rafflesia was discovered.     The most famous Rafflesia discovered in the Philippines is called the Rafflesia philippensis. It was given its name by Blanco. It has a diameter of twenty nine up to thirty two centimeters when it has fully opened. Its species were found to be scattered around the vicinities of the Mount Banahaw National Park. In 2003 the park was closed for the Rafflesia researchers to make more studies on the population of the plant.     Among other names the plant is known also as the “corpse flower” because of its odor and meat-like structure. It has 20 general species known to exist. Despite its gigantic size, the flower is said to be safe to touch.

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    Remember the good all days when Nokia 3315 dominated the cellular brands available in the market? It has been the most popular and famous brand for cellular devices. Before mobile devices came in, it was first cellular devices and during that time Nokia has been occupying a great spot as the people’s number one choice.      However despite the popularity and the trusted reputation, Nokia faced a catastrophic event. During the release of mobile devices powered by android and ios, nokia wasn’t able to come up right away with their own version of android phone. Instead of getting along with the trend Nokia took the risk of partnering with Windows. The partnership gave birth to Nokia Lumia, also known as the Window’s Phone. Despite the name and the fresh approach, the new windows phone did not manage to attract more customers since it was launched. It was close to being failure since almost all users prefer using android devices rather than have it on windows.      For quite some time, Nokia remained silent about its attempt to match the release of android phones. Some people are even thinking what happened to this company. Nokia has indeed made a legacy. Now that the contract of the partnership between Nokia and Microsoft is finally over, Nokia is now launching its comeback with Nokia 6.     Last January 19, 2017 the company finally launched their mobile android device, the Nokia 6. Although this device will be launched exclusively in China as of the moment, people all over the world are very much excited for the comeback. But how excited should the people be with the specs of this new device?     Everybody should be excited because Nokia 6 has amazing specs that can be compared with Samsung and Apple’s most popular devices. Aside from the monster specs, people are very surprised to have it in a very affordable price. It is 70% cheaper compared to Apple’s Iphone 7 and Samsung’s S8. Just imagine having this kind of specs in a market price.     There is no wonder why it was sold out just a minute after its first launching in China. Although there are no reviews yet about this device people are positively anticipating that this is the thing that they have been waiting for. Everyone is wishing for this device to be available in their country or if not, Nokia will create a device that will be available all over the world.      There are also rumors that Nokia, in partnership with HMD Global will release two android mobile devices this year. And Nokia 6 is just the start of their comeback. The public are now waiting if Nokia will try to match the release date of Apple’s Iphone and Samsung’s S series. This will be an exciting year indeed. If you have plans of getting a new mobile device this year, you should watch out because a new competitive brand is going to make rounds for sure.   
    Losing weight has been one of the most anticipated topics for quite a while now. People are very much eager to lose weight and to obtain a physically fit body. Being slim and thin is now the new standard of beauty, which is the main reason why almost everyone are trying really hard to at least lower down those unwanted fats. The best and most effective way to lose weight is to have a daily exercise and to eat healthy foods that are enough to sustain the body’s need for energy. But people are too busy and lazy to do both.      It is undeniably true that people nowadays would love to eat and eat and wish not to gain weight at all. However it will never happen to most people. There are some though who don’t have any problems of gaining weight because of their metabolism.  But majority of people will pay price of eating too much and absolutely gaining too much weight. People are now trying their very best to finds the easiest yet the most effective way to lose weight. There are supplements, food suppressants, even coffee mix especially made to lose weight. To add to these is the discovery of rice corn.     Corn is known to be a good source of carbohydrates and even rich in minerals and vitamins. However although it is rich in carbohydrates it can actually help people lose weight especially if you are the type of person who often have carbs on their meals. Filipinos are rice eaters. It is hard for one to live on bread alone and that is for sure. If you rely heavily on rice or on carbohydrates it is best to replace rice with rice corn instead.      Rice corn might be effective to help you lose weight since it is has the most number of fiber among other grains. Aside from being fiber-rich, rice corn is more compact compared to rice. It means you only need a little serving for you to get full. Also it takes time before your stomach could actually digest corn because of its compact nature that is why it will also take time before you can feel hunger once again. Corn has less sugar compared to rice. It is one of the biggest assets of rice corn eaters. Carbohydrates, fats, and sugar are the three things you don’t want to accumulate in your diet if you want to achieve a lean and sexy body. Although corn contains carbs, you will be taking it in minimum amount since it is more compact compared to white rice.     Everybody is looking for different ways to lose weight. The best thing to do is to acquire discipline first and then look for ways appropriate for your body build. Not all dietary supplements are effective. Some would depend mainly on the body’s mechanism in losing weight!     
    Taking a bath is a necessity for any person. Taking baths regularly have great effects on the body especially when it comes to proper hygiene.  Washing your body removes dirt and even germs that may cause skin irritation and other forms of ailments. However there are also concerns when it comes to taking baths such as the drying of skin. What actually makes the skin dry and how can it be prevented?      Having a glowing and fully nourished skin is such an asset. It shows how healthy a person is and how he or she takes good care of his or her body. Of course dull and dry skin is not an indication of a healthy lifestyle. It can make a person look older than they seem. Taking baths regularly can indeed make your skin dry because it also removes the moisture within your skin. However choosing between soap or body bar and body wash can actually solve your problem.     Body bars or beauty bars are among the oldest and the traditional products used during bath time. It has been present even centuries ago. It is convenient to use and comes in affordable prices. Several variants of soap have been already produced to cater the needs of every person. There are beauty bars made especially for people having sensitive skin. These are often termed mas hypo allergenic products. With the convenience of using beauty bars, is there something special about body wash that can actually change the minds of the people who have been used to soaps.      Unlike beauty bars, body wash or shower gels are actually great if you have dry skin problems. The chemical components used in making shower gels are lighter and more delicate compared to those of beauty bars. This is the main reason why shower gels can totally moisturize your skin even if you use it every day. Although beauty bars have been present for ages, shower gels have its benefits that any person would surely consider.      A body wash unlike soap can be stored in a pump-type container making it really handy. Its scent stays longer in your skin unlike soap does. It produces more amount of lather, making you enjoy your bath more. It moisturizes your skin and it also comes in different variants depending on use. It is not that expensive and it can be bought in any supermarket stores just like soaps. Unlike soap it does not have any residues that can actually make your skin flaky.   
    If you are fond of shopping online for sure you have come across posts or pages selling bags, shoes, jewelries, cosmetics and other sort of trendy things. These items became really salable because sellers would claim that they have way cheaper prices compared to those items sold in malls. A buyer with a limited amount of money would sure go for a budget-friendly deal believing that he or she would get the same item being sold in malls. Other seller would even label their products as “authentic overruns” or “original overruns”.      What else should a buyer know if an item is labeled as an authentic overrun aside from the lower price it has? The truth is there is actually no such thing as “authentic overrun”. It’s just between an original one and a fake one. Yes, overruns are considered fake or counterfeit products. In support to the overrun claim, others would say that the products they are selling did not match or pass the quality standards and so they are being sold in cheaper prices. These products are still made from the original material but has some sort of imperfections and are not included in items delivered in malls and other authorized distributors. This claim sounds really convincing right?      In counterfeit items or imitations there are still classifications in terms of quality. The one considered to be the closest to the original is called an overrun, next is a replica, and it is followed by class A, class B and so on. There are some items that are really sturdy and have great quality, almost the same with the original. The price difference does matter, and if you are going to conduct a research, almost all online stores have the same price range for items. This means, their products came from the same source or the supplier for these items is the same.      There is nothing wrong in buying these kinds of stuff, who would want to spend more money if can spend less and have the item that you really like? However it is best to know the value of what you are buying for. Don’t get fooled by those sellers telling you that they are selling original items. Also, the price range for overrun items are almost the same, so don’t get fooled if you saw an item that you like in a much higher price compared to what you saw, thinking that, that  must be the original one. If the price is 50%-70% lower compared to malls, then it must have been an overrun or a replica.   
    Nowadays, people are becoming busier with their work and other sorts of responsibilities. When you have just started working, chances are you spend majority of your time working and earning a living. But it is also important to distress yourself from so much stress from the demands of your work. But how can you do it if you have very limited time left to enjoy? Food has been one of the key comforts of the people at this present time.      Wherever and whenever you go to a certain restaurant you will surely get to see a chicken on their menu. Chicken is served in all restaurants, of course except for vegans. It is one of the most handy to cook among all other meat. You can have it fried, serve it in salads, or have it as a soup and even in barbecues. People consume chicken as much as they consume rice. Aside from being versatile in terms of recipes, chicken can be cooked easily. Most of the chicken recipes do not require too much time in terms of preparation. Also, it is always available in the market, rain or shine. It is available whole year round. It doesn’t have to depend on any season at all.     Almost all are eating chicken but do you know or have you already asked yourself on which is the healthiest part of the chicken? In terms of being healthy, the breast part would surely take the win. Why it is considered to be the healthiest has something to do with its structure and component. Unlike other chicken parts, the breast is mainly composed of lean meat. It does not have any extra fat and is a good source of protein. It isn’t difficult to prepare and require little or less time compared to other parts because it does not have bones at all. Although the breast may seem not that appealing it is the healthiest part of the chicken. It is best for those who are on their diet. You will not feel guilty at all after consuming a whole chicken breast.      Now for the tastiest part, it is none other than the thighs. The drumstick is indeed popular but the thighs have tastier meat. The wings might also be a good appetizer however it contains less meat compared to the thighs, making it as appetizer but not the main dish. Chicken thighs have tastier and juicer meat compared to all others. It has the right amount of meat and it has bones to give it enough structure and for you to bite on.      However if you are a drumstick person then go for it, choose the one that makes you happy. If you are conscious with your diet then go for the breast part. In the end, it will depend on your own preference. Rest, assured that your chicken will always be there for you no matter what.