The Philippines has caught the attention of several humanitarian groups because of the alleged extra judicial killings happening in the country. Those who are against of the present administration’s campaign to eradicate drugs all over the country raised their concerns up to the international or foreign bodies. Because according to them the Philippines is being managed under President Rodrigo Duterte’s dictatorship.

budajo masaccre


    In response to this call, there are indeed several international groups even the UN who immediately showed disagreement towards the Duterte administration without even validating the reports being brought to them. This is actually one of the biggest conflicts within this country. Media is no longer a source for credible and genuine news. The integrity of those who are working in media companies have been already stained because of their biased reporting. It has been already proven several times even during the campaign period. 

budajo masaccre


    During Duterte explained and defended his governance and the alleged extra judicial killings. In counter to what the critics and the international groups were saying, Duterte then showed photos of the Budajo. These photos were not even documented in Philippine history books. Majority of the Filipinos are not aware of the existence of this unfortunate event. Only few people knew about this and luckily the President is one of these people. He revealed the almost-forgotten sentiments of those people who were part of the said history. 

budajo masaccre


    Budajo, is one of the most bloody encounters of all time. Although this wasn’t documented, it remains in the memory of the Tausug Tribe who has kept in their memories up to now. There were pictures recovered of what actually happened during that time. It was absolutely a massacre were helpless individuals were slaughtered.  The tribe resisted the American colonization in return they did this to them. However it was not documented at all. Americans managed to build a false image of them being good to Filipinos. 


    This is the main reason why Duterte believes that there is strong and undying sentiments in Mindanao that very few people are aware of. Finally the time has come that it has been revealed to the public and how bloody it was for our brother and sisters. It was even suggested that history books for public schools must contain and cover the details of this horrific event and to make every Filipino appreciate and enrich his or her own culture rather than those of other races. 
 

    Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban.
    All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain. 
    The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines.
    Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario.
    The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years.
    The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.

    Until the discovery of the Callao Man, archaeologists used to believe that it was the Tabon Man who was the oldest and earliest man to have lived in the Philippines. The fossils of the Callao’s remains was discovered in Cagayan in Penablanca in the Callao Caves. It was found by Armand Salvador Mijares in the year 2007. 
    The discovery has produced a metatarsal, a group of bones which are located in mid and hind foot and somewhere near the toes. This metatarsus was about Sixty millimeters long. The find was dated through the use of a uranium series ablation, the most accurate dating method used by archaeologists. The results of the uranium shows that the bones were about 60-67,000 years old. If they were to prove the bones to belong to the Homo Sapiens then it would beat the Tabon Man and earn its place in the list as the earliest remains of man to be found in the Philippines. It also has the chance of being the oldest not only in the country but in the whole of Asia Pacific. Researchers has noted that the Callao Man had an average height of 4ft tall. 
    Researchers also believe that their descendants could be the Aetas who live in the mountains in the present in the Philippines. This is because of the possible features that emanate from their study of the metatarsal which suggests short height, curly hair and dark skin. 
    But the classification in terms of the biological of the Callao man became uncertain in July of 2010. This is because the metatarsal that was discovered was found out by researchers as belonging to the Homo genus species. These researchers speculate that Callao Man could either belong to the Homo florsiensis or the Homo Sapiens. Homo florsiensis are species which are distinct from men that is usually short in height and resides mostly on the islands of Indonesia. On the other hand, the Homo Sapiens are what is now known as the modern type of men. The researchers were becoming unsure of the genus of the bones due to the fact that they haven’t yet discovered a skull to fit the metatarsal. But Mijares was able to stress that the Callao Man was most probably an individual that has a small body.
    Theories show that the Callao Man and his group of humans originated from the country of Indonesia and came to Luzon by way of a raft. The researchers have noted that this theory fits to dated existence of the Callao Man when humans were not yet capable of travelling long distances and voyages. 
    This glaciations created isthmuses or land bridges that connected islands from other islands. According to the theory during the times of the Callao Man there were isthmuses that connected Philippines to all of Southeast Asia. 
In the present day, there have been no other researchers to find more on the bones of the Callao Man except those of Mijares’ group from the University of the Philippines.

    One of the most famous revolts in the Philippines is called the Dagohoy Revolution or also known as the Dagohoy Revolt. It is famous in Philippine history for being the longest of its kind. The rebellion was led by Francisco Sendrijas or better known as Francisco Dagohoy. The revolt happened in Bohol and lasted for 85 years from 1744 to 1829. It occurred in the Spanish era. The Dagohoy revolt was a sequel to a prior rebellion known as the Tamblot uprising which was headed by Tamblot in 1621. But the Tamblot revolution was a religious one because it was led by a native priest.
    The Dagohoy revolution was unlike the Tamblot revolution. It was not a spiritual rebellion but a conflict which was a retaliation to oppression, forced labor and too much tax collection and requests for tribute payments. To make matters worse, it was the Jesuit priests who headed these abuses.
    In the year 1744, Bohol was prepared for another fight against Spain because of its oppression. In the same yearm a Jesuit priest called Gaspar Morales commanded a constable named Sagarino to hunt a man guilty of abandoning Christianity. When the constable caught the man, the fugitive murdered him. When Sagarino was found he was brought to Morales for a Christian burial. But the priest refused to give it to him because according to the Church at that time, death by duel was banned from rights to a Christian burial.
    The brother of Sagarino was Francisco Dagohoy. He was furious when he heard of the news and searched and found his brother’s body. He then went to Morales and persuaded him to give his brother a proper Christian burial. But the priest denied him saying that Sagarino did not deserve it for dying in a duel. What made it worse was when the priest ordered for Sagarino’s corpse to be exposed in Inabanga for three days until it rots.
    This was the final straw to the Dagohoy revolution. It was Jesuits’ refusal to offer Christian’s brothers a burial even when the dead person died in service by chasing fugitives who fought Christianity. Because of this Dagohoy called on his fellow Boholanos to gather and fight against the oppressions. Spanish Governors and missions were outlasted by this rebellion.
    Today, the Dagohoy Rebellion is featured in Bohol’s provincial flag showing two bolos or the country’s native swords with hand guards drawn on top of them. The Dagohoy Revolution represents one of the swords while the Tamblot represents the other. It is a symbol that says that Boholanos would always rise and fight the oppressors whoever they may be.
    To honor Franscisco, one of the towns in Bohol was named Dagohoy after him. The name was proposed by Carlos P. Garcia who was a former Vice President of the country. Francisco Dagohoy is considered as a Boholano hero.

    The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from the grasp of the Spanish colony occurred on June 12, 1898. It was proclaimed in Cavite and was done through the announcement in public of the Act of declaration independence. On that day Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary forces was given the sovereignty of the country.
    The Declaration of Independence by Philippines was not an easy task for the Filipinos. It was a 3 year revolution which began in the year 1896. In those times the Spanish had sealed an agreement with the supporters of the revolution to send Emilio Aguinaldo to Hong Kong as an exile. But the Spanish-American war broke out where the Asiatic Squadron which belonged to the US NAVY sailed to Manila Bay from Hongkong. The fleet was led by Commodore George Dewey. Eventually, they defeated the Spanish through the help of the United States. The victory was declared on May 1, 1898 after the Battle of Manila Bay has decided the defeat of the Spanish colonizers. On the same month Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Philippines escorted by the U.S. Navy.
    The Proclamation ceremony occurred in the afternoon and at the familial house of the Aguinaldo family. Their house was located 30km South from Manila. In the ceremony the Philippine flag was spread out. The national flag was originally made from Hong Kong. The unfurling of the flag was then followed by the Marcha Filipina Magdalo being performed. It became the national anthem of the country and is now called Lupang Hinirang. San Francisco de Malabon was the name of the marching band which performed the anthem. It was all written by Julian Felipe.
    Meanwhile, it was Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who wrote, prepared and read the Act of the Declaration of Independence. He composed it and read it all in Spanish. About a hundred people signed the Declaration as witnesses to the proclamation. One of them was an American officer who also observed the ceremony. But later on the declaration was modified. Apolinario Mabini insisted upon it and was acted upon by the Malolos congress. They objected for the Philippines to be held under the influence of the United States in return for protection.
    Unfortunately the proclamation had to go through rough times. It was not recognized by the U.S. and Spain. But at the defeat of the Spanish to the Americans, Philippines was yielded to the US as part of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As a retaliation, the treaty was not recognized by the Philippine Revolutionary Government. This resulted in what is known as the Philippine-American war. But the Philippines lost to the U.S. This happened when the U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was persuaded then to sign and agree to hand over the sovereignty of the country. On July 2, 1902 it was telegraphed by Elihu Root, U.S. Secretary of War, that all provincial governments were successfully established all over the Philippines. He added that the only exception were those places occupied by the tribes of the Moros. They have been resisting the U.S. forces for a number of years.
    The National Library of Philippines currently houses the Declaration. Just like any other document in the said library, the Declaration requires permission for it to be seen by viewers. It is a series of declarations of independence which consists also of the United Statse Declaration of Independence.

    In 1937, General MacArthur married with Miss Faircloth. And on December of the same year he retired from military service but went on to live in Manila. But Roosevelt regionalized the Philippine Army on July 26, 1941. He then reassigned MacArthur to stand as major general of the American Army naming Douglas as commander of the USAFFE. Within a day, Macarthur’s promotion to lieutenant was proclaimed. Afterwards he was promoted on December 20, 1941 as a general. Other known officers were also promoted during that time. Sutherland became major general and Hugh Casey became brigadier general. By July 31, 1941 over twenty two thousand troops had been assigned by the Philippine Department. 
    General Douglas MacArthur’s famous ‘’I shall return’’ speech were a result of his escape from one of the most famous battles in the history of the Philippines known as the Fall of Bataan. In December 8, 1941 MacArthur was informed by Sutherland of the ambush on Pearl Harbor. Gen. George Marshall gave MacArthur orders to continue the original Rainbow Five war plan. But Douglas refused to follow the order. There were also requests of permission to hit bases owned by the Japanese from an Air Force commander but all were denied. They were confused on what to do next because of the attack that happened on Pearl Harbor. At noontime, Japanese Air crafts surprised and bombarded Clark Field and bases at the Iba Field and in a few days the US Air Force were all destroyed.
    When the defense plans failed to stop the Japanese from taking Manila, the Filipino and U.S. Forces were called to retreat and bring all the war supplies to Bataan. MacArthur tried to lessen the Japanese speed in advancing but changed his mind when he saw the quick advancement of the Japanese and their superiority in battle against the Filipino troops. He called everyone to retreat to the Bataan peninsula to wait for reinforcements there. On December 24, 1941 the declaration of Manila as an open city was announced.
    On the next day, MacArthur had to transfer his headquarters to the fortresses of Corregidor due to the destruction of nearly all of the USAFFE bases. Many of the headquarters started to go for Bataan to leave MacArthur. Although the Filipino and Americans knew they were hopeless they still fought the Japanese. Some of them blamed MacArthur because of the failure but others believed he would find a way to get them out of the mess. 
    The Japanese Army gradually neutralized most of the defenders of the Philippines on February in 1942. On the same year President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to move to Australia. He left with his family and major general Sutherland in PT boats away from Corregidor on March 12, 1942. They were received by B-17s and flew off to Australia. On March 20, 1942 he made his famous speech to return to the Philippine Islands. He was told by Washington to change the “I” on his statement to “we” but MacArthur refused it. In his speech he said, “ I came through and I shall return” stressing his resolve to redeem the Philippines from its enemies.  Meanwhile, after a series of battles, Bataan fell to the hands of the Japanese Army.
    October 1944 gave MacArthur the chance he’d been waiting for. On the 20th of that month, and after efforts to be summoned by Roosevelt to Philippines, General Douglas was finally back in the Philippines. He landed on Leyte with the Sixth Army of Krueger’s troops where they waded on foot in the waters of the Leyte beach. He also made another famous speech where he reassured the Filipinos of his promise to eradicate their enemies once and for all. And after two months, the Japanese Army lost Leyte to the US Army.

    The City of Cagayan de Oro is also the capital of Misamis Oriental. It is also the regional center of Northern Mindanao. Tourists and travelers from time to time flock the city. Because of this, it is titled as the city of golden friendship. Ironically, before the peace, it went through a tiresome war that made its mark in the history of the Philippines.
    For 276 years the Spanish Colonizers dominated the Philippines. But on the 10th of December 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed by the United States and Spain in Paris. In the treaty it was agreed that the country would handed over to the Americans in return for a payment. The amount paid to Spain by the Americans was 120,000,0000 dollars. In other words, Philippines was bought by the United States from Spain.
    In Cagayan de Oro, the Americans’ arrival was much received with restiveness and hostility by the Kagay-anons. They did not agree to the occupation of the US. And so a revolutionary group called “ Tercios Revolucionarios” was created and organized by the people of Cagayan. Its main leaders were people who are prominent even in today’s times. These people included known names in Cagayan de Oro such as Apolinar Velez, Nicanor Capistrano, Roa Y. Racines, Tirso Neri, and Cayetano Pacana.
    The prominent leaders of this organization purposefully trained and prepared the Kagay-anons mentally and physically. Their main goal was to resist and push back the Americans from entering their town. But there was a setback to their plans as they have realized. Their men had only bolos and some rifles as weapons to fight the Americans. But nevertheless, these were the men who fought in the famous April 7, 1900 battle and that of Macahambus.
    The invasion of Cagayan de Oro by the Americans came on 31 March 1900. They first bombarded the town and burned the flag of Macabalan. The fighters of the Tercios Revolucionarios were already prepared and trained even before the invasion came. But they waited until April 7 to attack the Americans. Their army was headed by General Nicolas Capistrano. Originally, they were camped at Gagno plateau at Bukidnon which is located 9km from Cagayan. 
    The ringing of San Agustin Church’s bell was the go signal for them to attack the Americans when they arrived. The Revolucionarios attacked in a systematized wave. The first wave were men with bolos only as weapons. Then next to them were the riflemen. They were then followed by cavalrymen. Their main plan was to make a sneak attack on the American soldiers. But because some of the macheteros(men with bolos) shouted battle cries, their plan was foiled.
    The Americans were quick to react to the battle cries of the natives carrying bolos and so there raged a battle between the well-armed Americans and the Revolucionarios. When Gen. Capistrano realized impending defeat, he ordered for a retreat. The most intense fighting happened in the town’s plaza, which is now called the Gaston Park. But the Kagay-anons stood no chance against the Americans. After an hour they were defeated and the remnants of the Revolucionarios were chased away from the city.
    Even with so little hope of winning, the Revolucionarios fought with much valiance. But still they were defeated. When peace returned to Cagayan de Oro, Tirso Neri became its first Mayor. There he ordered the opening of Divisoria.

    The Philippine National Flag is horizontal in shape. It has a bicolor of the blue at the top and scarlet red at the bottom. On its hoist is a white triangle which is equilateral too. This triangle has a golden yellow sun consisting of eight rays. Each of the rays represents the provinces of the country which started the 1896 Revolution of the Philippines against Spain. The triangle also has three golden stars with five points representing the 3 main islands of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. War is indicated when the flag is displayed with the blue side at the bottom and the red on top.
    The construction of the flag follows rules in terms of its measurements. The stars on the other hand should be oriented in such a way that its tips would be pointing to the vertex where it is located. Also, the gap-angle between the 8rays should be equivalent to the angle one ray angle. Finally, the sun should not be placed at the exact center but should be shifted a little to the right of the triangle.
    Meanwhile, every part of the Philippine National Flag is a symbol which represents meaning to the country. The rectangular design and equilateral triangle represents equality and fraternity. The blue stripe on top symbolizes peace, truth and justice. And red stripe then represents patriotism and valor. The eight rays of the sun symbolize the provinces which sparked the 1896 revolution. These are namely the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite and Manila. 
    However, the 1898 Proclamation Philippine Independence gave a symbolism of the flag which differed from the current one. At that time for example, the white triangle represented the crest of the Katipunan, a secret society opposing the Spaniards. The colors of the flag too represented another meaning signifying the commemoration of the American flag as a sign of gratitude for their protection of the Filipinos against the Spaniards in the Philippine Revolution. 
    The first National flag of the Philippines was sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo. She was assisted by the niece of Jose Rizal Delfina Herbosa de Natividad and Marcela’s daughter Lorenza. This flag was officially displayed for war in May 28, 1898. On June 12, 1898 the flag was formally raised in Kawit, Cavite as the proclamation of independence was declared. 
    The flag’s design had gone through a phase of change. Originally, the sun on the flag had a mythical effect to it by having a face. It was a common symbol to Spanish colonies. There have also been controversies about the color of the flag because some historians argue that it was the same shade used in the flag of Cuba. It is also true that at some degrees the Cuba revolution against Spain helped shape the Philippine Revolution. The current and modern design of the flag came from the President Emilio Aguinaldo. He conceptualized the idea while he was in Hong Kong on 1897 in exile.

    In his mission to try to find a westward route to the Moluccas Islands for Spain, Ferdinand Magellan discovered Samar on March 16, 1521. The next day his ships anchored in the shores of Homonhon. The chieftains of Limasawa Rajah Kulambu and Rajah Siagu received Magellan’s arrival with hospitality. They and their queens converted into the Catholic faith and guided him to Cebu. As an honor Magellan gave them the Santo Nino as a gift and also to mark their alliance. Because of Magellan’s influence on Rajah Humabon, nearby chiefs were ordered to convert to Christianity and to supply Magellan’s ships with food. All of the chiefs complied with the order except the two Datus of Mactan of which one was Datu Lapu-Lapu who was very stern in his refusal to accept Christianity. According to the written records of Magellan’s chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, the second chief sent his son to Magellan to explain to him that he would have met the terms and orders of the King of Spain to convert and provide food had it not been for Lapu-Lapu’s disagreement.
    The Datus Rajah Humabon and Zula heard of the opposition and advised Magellan to join forces with him and the other chieftains and use power in persuading Lapu-Lapu to comply with the orders. The Captain saw this as an opportunity to strengthen his ties with the ruler and agreed to help him. Antonio Pigaffeta’s accounts in the journey narrates that Magellan made efforts to convince Lapu-Lapu to follow Rajah Humabon’s orders the night before their encounter but didn’t succeed.
    In the midnight of April 27, 1521, 70 armored men along with Magellan and the Chieftains sailed towards Mactan riding the balanguais, a type of Filipino boat, at about 20 to 30 in number and arrived hours before dawn. The captain tried a last effort in persuading Lapu-Lapu by sending one of the natives to tell him to obey the King of Spain and pay their tributes or else they will be forced to use their lances. But the reply they received was that if they had lances, Lapu-Lapu’s men had bamboos sharpened and toughened with fire. According to Pigaffeta it was part of their strategy when they asked Magellan not to attack immediately and to let the morning come so that they may have more men. He said that they said that in order to tempt them to look for Lapu-Lapu’s men because they have dug trap holes for them to fall on to while they searched.
    In April 28, Magellan set out and 50 armed men went towards Mactan. Unfortunately, the corals of the beach forced them to anchor their ship far from the shores of the island so that they had to walk in the water for a time before they got to the island. Also, because of the distance, Magellan had no choice but to leave his Howitzers behind which he intended to use on the warriors of Lapu-Lapu which ranged in an estimate of 1,000 plus men.
    The battle started when Magellan and his men neared the island. They saw that the army of Lapu-Lapu divided into three groups. When the warriors saw the foreigners, they started screaming and rushing towards them. For half an hour the Spaniards kept shooting their crossbows but to no avail. Lapu-Lapu and his men eventually came into contact with them as Magellan and his men came into the island.
    Pigaffeta wrote that Magellan meant to scare the warriors by burning their houses. Instead this provoked them more and they became furious and started attacking resulting in the death of some of his men. When a poisoned arrow hit Magellan in the right leg, he gave the order to retreat slowly but they all ran away except 8 of them including Pigaffeta who escorted the captain. Lapu-Lapu’s men targeted their legs because they had no armor in that part of their body. Magellan himself received a blow in the leg from a kampilan(a long edged Muslim sword) and a spear in the arm. He was able to kill a warrior with his lance but his injuries made him weak and was finally outnumbered and stabbed and killed by the mob all at once. It was said in Pigaffeta’s records that Magellan resisted the force in order for his men to make it safely to the boat. When they got aboard the ship they saw them behead Magellan.
Datus Humabon and Zula did not participate in the battle because of Magellan’s request for them not to. They observed from a distance and after the battle negotiated with Lapu-Lapu to return his corpse in exchange for merchandise. But Lapu-Lapu refused and up until now Magellan’s remains were never recovered. It is said that the soldiers who survived the battle of Mactan were poisoned in a feast given by Humabon resulting in the order of Juan Sebastian del Cano,successor of Magellan, to depart immediately and return to Spain in fear of Humabon’s betrayal.
    In the Philippines, Lapu-Lapu is known as the first National Hero to fight against outside forces. Whatever the accounts were, it is true that he did succeed in his refusal to acknowledge a foreign king as his ruler.

    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.
    The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.
    The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored. 
    Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.
    The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.
    The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.

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    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.     The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.     The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored.      Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.     The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.     The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.
    The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from the grasp of the Spanish colony occurred on June 12, 1898. It was proclaimed in Cavite and was done through the announcement in public of the Act of declaration independence. On that day Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary forces was given the sovereignty of the country.     The Declaration of Independence by Philippines was not an easy task for the Filipinos. It was a 3 year revolution which began in the year 1896. In those times the Spanish had sealed an agreement with the supporters of the revolution to send Emilio Aguinaldo to Hong Kong as an exile. But the Spanish-American war broke out where the Asiatic Squadron which belonged to the US NAVY sailed to Manila Bay from Hongkong. The fleet was led by Commodore George Dewey. Eventually, they defeated the Spanish through the help of the United States. The victory was declared on May 1, 1898 after the Battle of Manila Bay has decided the defeat of the Spanish colonizers. On the same month Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Philippines escorted by the U.S. Navy.     The Proclamation ceremony occurred in the afternoon and at the familial house of the Aguinaldo family. Their house was located 30km South from Manila. In the ceremony the Philippine flag was spread out. The national flag was originally made from Hong Kong. The unfurling of the flag was then followed by the Marcha Filipina Magdalo being performed. It became the national anthem of the country and is now called Lupang Hinirang. San Francisco de Malabon was the name of the marching band which performed the anthem. It was all written by Julian Felipe.     Meanwhile, it was Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who wrote, prepared and read the Act of the Declaration of Independence. He composed it and read it all in Spanish. About a hundred people signed the Declaration as witnesses to the proclamation. One of them was an American officer who also observed the ceremony. But later on the declaration was modified. Apolinario Mabini insisted upon it and was acted upon by the Malolos congress. They objected for the Philippines to be held under the influence of the United States in return for protection.     Unfortunately the proclamation had to go through rough times. It was not recognized by the U.S. and Spain. But at the defeat of the Spanish to the Americans, Philippines was yielded to the US as part of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As a retaliation, the treaty was not recognized by the Philippine Revolutionary Government. This resulted in what is known as the Philippine-American war. But the Philippines lost to the U.S. This happened when the U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was persuaded then to sign and agree to hand over the sovereignty of the country. On July 2, 1902 it was telegraphed by Elihu Root, U.S. Secretary of War, that all provincial governments were successfully established all over the Philippines. He added that the only exception were those places occupied by the tribes of the Moros. They have been resisting the U.S. forces for a number of years.     The National Library of Philippines currently houses the Declaration. Just like any other document in the said library, the Declaration requires permission for it to be seen by viewers. It is a series of declarations of independence which consists also of the United Statse Declaration of Independence.
    In today's present generation weight has been closely linked to self-esteem, self-confidence and even respect. Believe it or not most of those people being subject to bullying are those who are also having problems with their weight. It has become a serious concern for all especially for young kids who already belonged to the obese class. Bullying can be one of the most dangerous things that a person can experience. It has proved its cost with people who were pushed to commit suicide because they can no longer handle the pain of being a laughing stock.     Beauty has also been greatly linked to size and weight. Skinny people are now considered beautiful because of their mere size. Gone are the days when beauty is actually defined to be something better than the appearance of a person. Several women were slammed because of not being skinny. That is how society dictates the standards of beauty. However there are also some who managed to promote self-acceptance and respect of having different body built which is actually the right thing to do.      On the other hand, being not skinny is also different from being overweight. It is important to maintain a normal body index because it has a huge impact on your health. Body mass index can be computed by getting your height and weight. Your weight should be proportional with your height. This is the main reason why it is important to lose weight if you are a few pounds over than the normal.      Although each person has his or her own beauty regardless of size, health does depend on size. When you tolerate yourself being fat, you are actually putting yourself in great danger and that is not beautiful at all. Being overweight signifies excess fats within your system, particularly in your organs. Heart attack, diabetes and other lifestyle diseases are actually caused by obesity and less control over one’s diet.      This is a human being’s heart at it is covered with fats. It is the reality. It is never ever beautiful to have something like this within you. It should be the number one reason for a person to lose weight. Health is something you can’t have in an instant. It is something you take care of. Being beautiful is being able to live a longer life. The best thing to do is to have a normal body weight and a body free from diseases. This should be an inspiration rather than having the reason of being accepted by the society.  
    Nowadays people are very much dependent with the internet. Being online 24/7 is slowly becoming a norm and obviously people are into it for several reasons. Majority of people choose to stay online because of social media such as Facebook, Instagram, meanwhile others are using it as their bread and butter. It is undeniably true that the internet can actually help you generate funds as long as you have the skills and you make use of it. However, what if you don’t have any knowledge about programming, web designing etc.? Anyone can actually become an online worker. It is not limited to those who know such skills. There are varieties of work available online that doesn’t require you to be a pro.      Here are the lists of the most in-demand online jobs that do not require special skills.     Article writer, content writer, blogger. It is the most common and very basic type of job that you can find online. The thing about article writers is that it has always been available since the very day it started. Every website that relies on Google AdSense for monetary gain is required to have quality articles. Google have high standards when it comes to content. It bans websites with less articles or content. Google AdSense has been known to also have high rates when it comes to funds, one great reason why almost all who would want to gain money from websites chose AdSense as their provider. Article writers are usually paid according to the number of articles finished. Also, it is very important to create your own article and refrain from copying contents because it can be monitored by employers by simply using software such as copyscape. It checks your article for possible duplicate and it can also locate where you copied a certain portion of your content.      Online Tutor. If you speak good English and have great internet speed at home, you will most likely encounter offers of being an online tutor. Rates are per hour and this became really popular nowadays because it does not require too much of your energy as long as you have the patience in guiding your student. Also, online tutors are for one on one basis only. It means you will just have to focus on a single student every session. The clients are mostly from Japan, Korea, Singapore and other Asian countries whose first language is not English. Also, you can choose whether you want to have a video or just an audio session. There are several companies that are hiring every now and then because demands for this job are quite high.      Data Entry. Have you ever came across with captchas online? These are figures in the form of numbers or letters that you are required to type in during verification process every time you sign up for a new website. However unlike the first two options above, this one here is not for free. This requires you to pay P600 as membership fee. Upon payment you will then have access to their system, including the software that you will use. The software will be the one to generate the captcha that you have to encode. You will be paid according to the number of captchas that you can generate and encode. The best thing here is that you don’t have any employers and deadlines to meet. You can make use of it anytime you want. Your salary will surely depend on how eager you are to work. 
    Biologically, women have higher tolerance for pain unlike men. Women experience a lot of pain during giving birth and even due to dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is not a disease or an illness but is a medical term used to describe the severe pain in the form of cramps that women usually experience when they are having their monthly period. Sometimes this can occur before, during and even after every menstruation period. When a woman starts to have menstruation there is a high chance that she will experience dysmenorrhea, in fact 80% of women experienced dysmenorrhea since they started to have their monthly periods.      The severe pain that a woman experience is absolutely something that any man would never want to experience. It is an excruciating kind of pain that it can already affect a woman’s daily activities. Some women even experience nausea and vomiting. Once it starts to interrupt with a person’s activities it is important to find ways on how to handle and perhaps ease the pain that it brings.      Physiologically, dysmenorrhea occurs when the uterus starts to contract. The reason why women feel cramps is when the uterus starts to contract strongly and it starts to block blood vessels around the uterus. The insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscle is what triggers cramps in the form of dysmenorrhea. Since it has something to do with uterine contraction, it is important to find ways on how contraction can be lessen so that it won’t affect nearby blood vessels     Drink warm water or tea. Warm water can actually help ease the cramps as the warm temperature can actually relax and help the uterus expand. In such way enough oxygen can reach the muscles. A hot compress can also help. Use a hot pack or a bottle filled with hot water and place it near your abdomen. Taking rests is very important so that your body can recover faster.     Refrain from drinking pain reliever. This kind of medicine does not take the source of pain. It only works by masking or inhibiting your pain receptors, thus you will think that it was able to help, but when the effect of the medicine fades away, you will again eventually feel the pain. Dependence to pain relievers is not good because as you take one tablet after another, the dosage will also increase.        Go for an exercise. Although this may sound stupid because of the pain you are feeling, exercise cannot directly help relax the contraction of the uterus. However by doing an exercise your body produces endorphins that can help in boosting your mood and can make you forget about the pain that you are feeling.   

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    Biologically, women have higher tolerance for pain unlike men. Women experience a lot of pain during giving birth and even due to dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is not a disease or an illness but is a medical term used to describe the severe pain in the form of cramps that women usually experience when they are having their monthly period. Sometimes this can occur before, during and even after every menstruation period. When a woman starts to have menstruation there is a high chance that she will experience dysmenorrhea, in fact 80% of women experienced dysmenorrhea since they started to have their monthly periods.      The severe pain that a woman experience is absolutely something that any man would never want to experience. It is an excruciating kind of pain that it can already affect a woman’s daily activities. Some women even experience nausea and vomiting. Once it starts to interrupt with a person’s activities it is important to find ways on how to handle and perhaps ease the pain that it brings.      Physiologically, dysmenorrhea occurs when the uterus starts to contract. The reason why women feel cramps is when the uterus starts to contract strongly and it starts to block blood vessels around the uterus. The insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscle is what triggers cramps in the form of dysmenorrhea. Since it has something to do with uterine contraction, it is important to find ways on how contraction can be lessen so that it won’t affect nearby blood vessels     Drink warm water or tea. Warm water can actually help ease the cramps as the warm temperature can actually relax and help the uterus expand. In such way enough oxygen can reach the muscles. A hot compress can also help. Use a hot pack or a bottle filled with hot water and place it near your abdomen. Taking rests is very important so that your body can recover faster.     Refrain from drinking pain reliever. This kind of medicine does not take the source of pain. It only works by masking or inhibiting your pain receptors, thus you will think that it was able to help, but when the effect of the medicine fades away, you will again eventually feel the pain. Dependence to pain relievers is not good because as you take one tablet after another, the dosage will also increase.        Go for an exercise. Although this may sound stupid because of the pain you are feeling, exercise cannot directly help relax the contraction of the uterus. However by doing an exercise your body produces endorphins that can help in boosting your mood and can make you forget about the pain that you are feeling.   
    It is highly flattering when a different culture and nation appreciate your own. It is exactly what happened when a known Japanese artist created an artwork of the current President of the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte together with his the PNP Chief Ronald “Bato” De la Rosa. It is already a public knowledge that there are some people who are not actually very supportive of the President’s campaign against illegal drugs. And there are also some who are very much eager to pin down the president and his cabinet members.     The diverse reaction of the Filipino people towards their President is actually normal. There will always be supporters and there some who will greatly oppose. However, what is unusual is when a different country or nation comes in and appreciate the leadership and governance of the president. As a form of gratitude and appreciation an artwork made by has been given to the president and Chief Dela Rosa.      The artwork shows a scene when President Duterte awarded Chief Dela Rosa as the new PNP chief.  Several people became really produ of what the artist did. After a long time, someone who is even from a different culture appreciated the efforts of the President. This act according to most Filipinos, made them once again proud that they are Filipinos and that they have people like Duterte and Dela rosa.     It is just difficult to understand that how come a foreign figure managed to appreciate the efforts of the president yet its people turned a blind eye on his achievements and aspirations of giving the Philippines a chance to prosper again, all for the benefit of the Filipino people and the next generations. Regardless of the campaign launched against the President people even from different countries have shown their support and their amazement of his governance and strong law enforcement.     It is indeed the time that Filipinos should be very proud of having a leader like him, a leader like no other. He has shown his great love and concern for the Filipino nation. It took the Philippines years before someone has finally brought great change to the country. According to surveys the Filipinos have high hopes that the current administration will be able to help deliver the nation to become prosperous. It is also evident in the lesser number of crime rates being recorded as a result of his campaign against illegal drugs. Truly, President Rodrigo Duterte is a blessing from above. People are praying for him to have longer life in order to serve and care for the Filipino people for more years to come.     
    The Philippines has caught the attention of several humanitarian groups because of the alleged extra judicial killings happening in the country. Those who are against of the present administration’s campaign to eradicate drugs all over the country raised their concerns up to the international or foreign bodies. Because according to them the Philippines is being managed under President Rodrigo Duterte’s dictatorship.     In response to this call, there are indeed several international groups even the UN who immediately showed disagreement towards the Duterte administration without even validating the reports being brought to them. This is actually one of the biggest conflicts within this country. Media is no longer a source for credible and genuine news. The integrity of those who are working in media companies have been already stained because of their biased reporting. It has been already proven several times even during the campaign period.      During Duterte explained and defended his governance and the alleged extra judicial killings. In counter to what the critics and the international groups were saying, Duterte then showed photos of the Budajo. These photos were not even documented in Philippine history books. Majority of the Filipinos are not aware of the existence of this unfortunate event. Only few people knew about this and luckily the President is one of these people. He revealed the almost-forgotten sentiments of those people who were part of the said history.      Budajo, is one of the most bloody encounters of all time. Although this wasn’t documented, it remains in the memory of the Tausug Tribe who has kept in their memories up to now. There were pictures recovered of what actually happened during that time. It was absolutely a massacre were helpless individuals were slaughtered.  The tribe resisted the American colonization in return they did this to them. However it was not documented at all. Americans managed to build a false image of them being good to Filipinos.      This is the main reason why Duterte believes that there is strong and undying sentiments in Mindanao that very few people are aware of. Finally the time has come that it has been revealed to the public and how bloody it was for our brother and sisters. It was even suggested that history books for public schools must contain and cover the details of this horrific event and to make every Filipino appreciate and enrich his or her own culture rather than those of other races.   
    The Philippines has been known to be a home for variety of culture and tradition. It can’t be denied that different tribe, and races were able to contribute and influence the Philippine’s history. Descendants from different cultures were embraced by the native Filipinos and created a community of prosperity rich in friendship and respect. One of the most common events being celebrated in the Philippines is the Chinese New Year. Although this event is intended for Chinese communities only, Filipinos have been fully accustomed to it. Not to mention the existing business establishments owned by Filipino-Chinese families that has been present for quite some time.       For this year, Chinese New Year will fall on January 28, 2017. Is it the same with the usual New Year celebration that the entire world is celebrating during January 1? The reason why Chinese have different kind of New Year Celebration is that Chinese follow the Lunar Calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar. Each year has its own or being represented by a zodiac. Chinese calendar is highly astronomical in nature and this has been their basis since time immemorial. It is also a sort of guide in choosing the best and luckiest dates for certain celebrations or events such as wedding, funerals, house blessings and even in opening a business.      In the Philippines, Chinese New Year is declared as a local non-working holiday. Although the number of number of people who have Chinese blood or are Chinese are not that many, it is a local holiday for all of the Filipinos to celebrate. This is how Chinese’s culture is closely tied with the Filipino’s. It has been also part of the Filipino community to join the Chinese with their tradition during Chinese New Year.      Tikoy which is actually a common food being sold during this celebration has been very popular within the entire country. It is actually made from grinned glutinous rice which is usually sweet. It has different flavors and its sticky nature is said to signify the closeness of family and friends. In China it is called Nian Gao. Although you can buy this anytime of the year, it is more in demand during the celebration of New Year.     Another thing which is very significant during this event is the Chinese Lion Dance. A group of dancers dressed in loud colors usually in red and yellow will roam the streets and perform the lion dance. Dancers are then escorted by other people who will be playing the cymbals and drums to give beat to the dance. They are usually seen in business establishments owned by Chinese businessmen. It is said that the lion dance can bring good fortune especially in business enterprises, since according to them, lions are considered to be the symbol of luck and positive energy.    
    In today's present generation weight has been closely linked to self-esteem, self-confidence and even respect. Believe it or not most of those people being subject to bullying are those who are also having problems with their weight. It has become a serious concern for all especially for young kids who already belonged to the obese class. Bullying can be one of the most dangerous things that a person can experience. It has proved its cost with people who were pushed to commit suicide because they can no longer handle the pain of being a laughing stock.     Beauty has also been greatly linked to size and weight. Skinny people are now considered beautiful because of their mere size. Gone are the days when beauty is actually defined to be something better than the appearance of a person. Several women were slammed because of not being skinny. That is how society dictates the standards of beauty. However there are also some who managed to promote self-acceptance and respect of having different body built which is actually the right thing to do.      On the other hand, being not skinny is also different from being overweight. It is important to maintain a normal body index because it has a huge impact on your health. Body mass index can be computed by getting your height and weight. Your weight should be proportional with your height. This is the main reason why it is important to lose weight if you are a few pounds over than the normal.      Although each person has his or her own beauty regardless of size, health does depend on size. When you tolerate yourself being fat, you are actually putting yourself in great danger and that is not beautiful at all. Being overweight signifies excess fats within your system, particularly in your organs. Heart attack, diabetes and other lifestyle diseases are actually caused by obesity and less control over one’s diet.      This is a human being’s heart at it is covered with fats. It is the reality. It is never ever beautiful to have something like this within you. It should be the number one reason for a person to lose weight. Health is something you can’t have in an instant. It is something you take care of. Being beautiful is being able to live a longer life. The best thing to do is to have a normal body weight and a body free from diseases. This should be an inspiration rather than having the reason of being accepted by the society.