The Philippines has caught the attention of several humanitarian groups because of the alleged extra judicial killings happening in the country. Those who are against of the present administration’s campaign to eradicate drugs all over the country raised their concerns up to the international or foreign bodies. Because according to them the Philippines is being managed under President Rodrigo Duterte’s dictatorship.

budajo masaccre


    In response to this call, there are indeed several international groups even the UN who immediately showed disagreement towards the Duterte administration without even validating the reports being brought to them. This is actually one of the biggest conflicts within this country. Media is no longer a source for credible and genuine news. The integrity of those who are working in media companies have been already stained because of their biased reporting. It has been already proven several times even during the campaign period. 

budajo masaccre


    During Duterte explained and defended his governance and the alleged extra judicial killings. In counter to what the critics and the international groups were saying, Duterte then showed photos of the Budajo. These photos were not even documented in Philippine history books. Majority of the Filipinos are not aware of the existence of this unfortunate event. Only few people knew about this and luckily the President is one of these people. He revealed the almost-forgotten sentiments of those people who were part of the said history. 

budajo masaccre


    Budajo, is one of the most bloody encounters of all time. Although this wasn’t documented, it remains in the memory of the Tausug Tribe who has kept in their memories up to now. There were pictures recovered of what actually happened during that time. It was absolutely a massacre were helpless individuals were slaughtered.  The tribe resisted the American colonization in return they did this to them. However it was not documented at all. Americans managed to build a false image of them being good to Filipinos. 


    This is the main reason why Duterte believes that there is strong and undying sentiments in Mindanao that very few people are aware of. Finally the time has come that it has been revealed to the public and how bloody it was for our brother and sisters. It was even suggested that history books for public schools must contain and cover the details of this horrific event and to make every Filipino appreciate and enrich his or her own culture rather than those of other races. 
 

    Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban.
    All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain. 
    The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines.
    Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario.
    The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years.
    The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.

    Until the discovery of the Callao Man, archaeologists used to believe that it was the Tabon Man who was the oldest and earliest man to have lived in the Philippines. The fossils of the Callao’s remains was discovered in Cagayan in Penablanca in the Callao Caves. It was found by Armand Salvador Mijares in the year 2007. 
    The discovery has produced a metatarsal, a group of bones which are located in mid and hind foot and somewhere near the toes. This metatarsus was about Sixty millimeters long. The find was dated through the use of a uranium series ablation, the most accurate dating method used by archaeologists. The results of the uranium shows that the bones were about 60-67,000 years old. If they were to prove the bones to belong to the Homo Sapiens then it would beat the Tabon Man and earn its place in the list as the earliest remains of man to be found in the Philippines. It also has the chance of being the oldest not only in the country but in the whole of Asia Pacific. Researchers has noted that the Callao Man had an average height of 4ft tall. 
    Researchers also believe that their descendants could be the Aetas who live in the mountains in the present in the Philippines. This is because of the possible features that emanate from their study of the metatarsal which suggests short height, curly hair and dark skin. 
    But the classification in terms of the biological of the Callao man became uncertain in July of 2010. This is because the metatarsal that was discovered was found out by researchers as belonging to the Homo genus species. These researchers speculate that Callao Man could either belong to the Homo florsiensis or the Homo Sapiens. Homo florsiensis are species which are distinct from men that is usually short in height and resides mostly on the islands of Indonesia. On the other hand, the Homo Sapiens are what is now known as the modern type of men. The researchers were becoming unsure of the genus of the bones due to the fact that they haven’t yet discovered a skull to fit the metatarsal. But Mijares was able to stress that the Callao Man was most probably an individual that has a small body.
    Theories show that the Callao Man and his group of humans originated from the country of Indonesia and came to Luzon by way of a raft. The researchers have noted that this theory fits to dated existence of the Callao Man when humans were not yet capable of travelling long distances and voyages. 
    This glaciations created isthmuses or land bridges that connected islands from other islands. According to the theory during the times of the Callao Man there were isthmuses that connected Philippines to all of Southeast Asia. 
In the present day, there have been no other researchers to find more on the bones of the Callao Man except those of Mijares’ group from the University of the Philippines.

    One of the most famous revolts in the Philippines is called the Dagohoy Revolution or also known as the Dagohoy Revolt. It is famous in Philippine history for being the longest of its kind. The rebellion was led by Francisco Sendrijas or better known as Francisco Dagohoy. The revolt happened in Bohol and lasted for 85 years from 1744 to 1829. It occurred in the Spanish era. The Dagohoy revolt was a sequel to a prior rebellion known as the Tamblot uprising which was headed by Tamblot in 1621. But the Tamblot revolution was a religious one because it was led by a native priest.
    The Dagohoy revolution was unlike the Tamblot revolution. It was not a spiritual rebellion but a conflict which was a retaliation to oppression, forced labor and too much tax collection and requests for tribute payments. To make matters worse, it was the Jesuit priests who headed these abuses.
    In the year 1744, Bohol was prepared for another fight against Spain because of its oppression. In the same yearm a Jesuit priest called Gaspar Morales commanded a constable named Sagarino to hunt a man guilty of abandoning Christianity. When the constable caught the man, the fugitive murdered him. When Sagarino was found he was brought to Morales for a Christian burial. But the priest refused to give it to him because according to the Church at that time, death by duel was banned from rights to a Christian burial.
    The brother of Sagarino was Francisco Dagohoy. He was furious when he heard of the news and searched and found his brother’s body. He then went to Morales and persuaded him to give his brother a proper Christian burial. But the priest denied him saying that Sagarino did not deserve it for dying in a duel. What made it worse was when the priest ordered for Sagarino’s corpse to be exposed in Inabanga for three days until it rots.
    This was the final straw to the Dagohoy revolution. It was Jesuits’ refusal to offer Christian’s brothers a burial even when the dead person died in service by chasing fugitives who fought Christianity. Because of this Dagohoy called on his fellow Boholanos to gather and fight against the oppressions. Spanish Governors and missions were outlasted by this rebellion.
    Today, the Dagohoy Rebellion is featured in Bohol’s provincial flag showing two bolos or the country’s native swords with hand guards drawn on top of them. The Dagohoy Revolution represents one of the swords while the Tamblot represents the other. It is a symbol that says that Boholanos would always rise and fight the oppressors whoever they may be.
    To honor Franscisco, one of the towns in Bohol was named Dagohoy after him. The name was proposed by Carlos P. Garcia who was a former Vice President of the country. Francisco Dagohoy is considered as a Boholano hero.

    The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from the grasp of the Spanish colony occurred on June 12, 1898. It was proclaimed in Cavite and was done through the announcement in public of the Act of declaration independence. On that day Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary forces was given the sovereignty of the country.
    The Declaration of Independence by Philippines was not an easy task for the Filipinos. It was a 3 year revolution which began in the year 1896. In those times the Spanish had sealed an agreement with the supporters of the revolution to send Emilio Aguinaldo to Hong Kong as an exile. But the Spanish-American war broke out where the Asiatic Squadron which belonged to the US NAVY sailed to Manila Bay from Hongkong. The fleet was led by Commodore George Dewey. Eventually, they defeated the Spanish through the help of the United States. The victory was declared on May 1, 1898 after the Battle of Manila Bay has decided the defeat of the Spanish colonizers. On the same month Emilio Aguinaldo returned to Philippines escorted by the U.S. Navy.
    The Proclamation ceremony occurred in the afternoon and at the familial house of the Aguinaldo family. Their house was located 30km South from Manila. In the ceremony the Philippine flag was spread out. The national flag was originally made from Hong Kong. The unfurling of the flag was then followed by the Marcha Filipina Magdalo being performed. It became the national anthem of the country and is now called Lupang Hinirang. San Francisco de Malabon was the name of the marching band which performed the anthem. It was all written by Julian Felipe.
    Meanwhile, it was Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who wrote, prepared and read the Act of the Declaration of Independence. He composed it and read it all in Spanish. About a hundred people signed the Declaration as witnesses to the proclamation. One of them was an American officer who also observed the ceremony. But later on the declaration was modified. Apolinario Mabini insisted upon it and was acted upon by the Malolos congress. They objected for the Philippines to be held under the influence of the United States in return for protection.
    Unfortunately the proclamation had to go through rough times. It was not recognized by the U.S. and Spain. But at the defeat of the Spanish to the Americans, Philippines was yielded to the US as part of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As a retaliation, the treaty was not recognized by the Philippine Revolutionary Government. This resulted in what is known as the Philippine-American war. But the Philippines lost to the U.S. This happened when the U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was persuaded then to sign and agree to hand over the sovereignty of the country. On July 2, 1902 it was telegraphed by Elihu Root, U.S. Secretary of War, that all provincial governments were successfully established all over the Philippines. He added that the only exception were those places occupied by the tribes of the Moros. They have been resisting the U.S. forces for a number of years.
    The National Library of Philippines currently houses the Declaration. Just like any other document in the said library, the Declaration requires permission for it to be seen by viewers. It is a series of declarations of independence which consists also of the United Statse Declaration of Independence.

    In 1937, General MacArthur married with Miss Faircloth. And on December of the same year he retired from military service but went on to live in Manila. But Roosevelt regionalized the Philippine Army on July 26, 1941. He then reassigned MacArthur to stand as major general of the American Army naming Douglas as commander of the USAFFE. Within a day, Macarthur’s promotion to lieutenant was proclaimed. Afterwards he was promoted on December 20, 1941 as a general. Other known officers were also promoted during that time. Sutherland became major general and Hugh Casey became brigadier general. By July 31, 1941 over twenty two thousand troops had been assigned by the Philippine Department. 
    General Douglas MacArthur’s famous ‘’I shall return’’ speech were a result of his escape from one of the most famous battles in the history of the Philippines known as the Fall of Bataan. In December 8, 1941 MacArthur was informed by Sutherland of the ambush on Pearl Harbor. Gen. George Marshall gave MacArthur orders to continue the original Rainbow Five war plan. But Douglas refused to follow the order. There were also requests of permission to hit bases owned by the Japanese from an Air Force commander but all were denied. They were confused on what to do next because of the attack that happened on Pearl Harbor. At noontime, Japanese Air crafts surprised and bombarded Clark Field and bases at the Iba Field and in a few days the US Air Force were all destroyed.
    When the defense plans failed to stop the Japanese from taking Manila, the Filipino and U.S. Forces were called to retreat and bring all the war supplies to Bataan. MacArthur tried to lessen the Japanese speed in advancing but changed his mind when he saw the quick advancement of the Japanese and their superiority in battle against the Filipino troops. He called everyone to retreat to the Bataan peninsula to wait for reinforcements there. On December 24, 1941 the declaration of Manila as an open city was announced.
    On the next day, MacArthur had to transfer his headquarters to the fortresses of Corregidor due to the destruction of nearly all of the USAFFE bases. Many of the headquarters started to go for Bataan to leave MacArthur. Although the Filipino and Americans knew they were hopeless they still fought the Japanese. Some of them blamed MacArthur because of the failure but others believed he would find a way to get them out of the mess. 
    The Japanese Army gradually neutralized most of the defenders of the Philippines on February in 1942. On the same year President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to move to Australia. He left with his family and major general Sutherland in PT boats away from Corregidor on March 12, 1942. They were received by B-17s and flew off to Australia. On March 20, 1942 he made his famous speech to return to the Philippine Islands. He was told by Washington to change the “I” on his statement to “we” but MacArthur refused it. In his speech he said, “ I came through and I shall return” stressing his resolve to redeem the Philippines from its enemies.  Meanwhile, after a series of battles, Bataan fell to the hands of the Japanese Army.
    October 1944 gave MacArthur the chance he’d been waiting for. On the 20th of that month, and after efforts to be summoned by Roosevelt to Philippines, General Douglas was finally back in the Philippines. He landed on Leyte with the Sixth Army of Krueger’s troops where they waded on foot in the waters of the Leyte beach. He also made another famous speech where he reassured the Filipinos of his promise to eradicate their enemies once and for all. And after two months, the Japanese Army lost Leyte to the US Army.

    The City of Cagayan de Oro is also the capital of Misamis Oriental. It is also the regional center of Northern Mindanao. Tourists and travelers from time to time flock the city. Because of this, it is titled as the city of golden friendship. Ironically, before the peace, it went through a tiresome war that made its mark in the history of the Philippines.
    For 276 years the Spanish Colonizers dominated the Philippines. But on the 10th of December 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed by the United States and Spain in Paris. In the treaty it was agreed that the country would handed over to the Americans in return for a payment. The amount paid to Spain by the Americans was 120,000,0000 dollars. In other words, Philippines was bought by the United States from Spain.
    In Cagayan de Oro, the Americans’ arrival was much received with restiveness and hostility by the Kagay-anons. They did not agree to the occupation of the US. And so a revolutionary group called “ Tercios Revolucionarios” was created and organized by the people of Cagayan. Its main leaders were people who are prominent even in today’s times. These people included known names in Cagayan de Oro such as Apolinar Velez, Nicanor Capistrano, Roa Y. Racines, Tirso Neri, and Cayetano Pacana.
    The prominent leaders of this organization purposefully trained and prepared the Kagay-anons mentally and physically. Their main goal was to resist and push back the Americans from entering their town. But there was a setback to their plans as they have realized. Their men had only bolos and some rifles as weapons to fight the Americans. But nevertheless, these were the men who fought in the famous April 7, 1900 battle and that of Macahambus.
    The invasion of Cagayan de Oro by the Americans came on 31 March 1900. They first bombarded the town and burned the flag of Macabalan. The fighters of the Tercios Revolucionarios were already prepared and trained even before the invasion came. But they waited until April 7 to attack the Americans. Their army was headed by General Nicolas Capistrano. Originally, they were camped at Gagno plateau at Bukidnon which is located 9km from Cagayan. 
    The ringing of San Agustin Church’s bell was the go signal for them to attack the Americans when they arrived. The Revolucionarios attacked in a systematized wave. The first wave were men with bolos only as weapons. Then next to them were the riflemen. They were then followed by cavalrymen. Their main plan was to make a sneak attack on the American soldiers. But because some of the macheteros(men with bolos) shouted battle cries, their plan was foiled.
    The Americans were quick to react to the battle cries of the natives carrying bolos and so there raged a battle between the well-armed Americans and the Revolucionarios. When Gen. Capistrano realized impending defeat, he ordered for a retreat. The most intense fighting happened in the town’s plaza, which is now called the Gaston Park. But the Kagay-anons stood no chance against the Americans. After an hour they were defeated and the remnants of the Revolucionarios were chased away from the city.
    Even with so little hope of winning, the Revolucionarios fought with much valiance. But still they were defeated. When peace returned to Cagayan de Oro, Tirso Neri became its first Mayor. There he ordered the opening of Divisoria.

    The Philippine National Flag is horizontal in shape. It has a bicolor of the blue at the top and scarlet red at the bottom. On its hoist is a white triangle which is equilateral too. This triangle has a golden yellow sun consisting of eight rays. Each of the rays represents the provinces of the country which started the 1896 Revolution of the Philippines against Spain. The triangle also has three golden stars with five points representing the 3 main islands of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. War is indicated when the flag is displayed with the blue side at the bottom and the red on top.
    The construction of the flag follows rules in terms of its measurements. The stars on the other hand should be oriented in such a way that its tips would be pointing to the vertex where it is located. Also, the gap-angle between the 8rays should be equivalent to the angle one ray angle. Finally, the sun should not be placed at the exact center but should be shifted a little to the right of the triangle.
    Meanwhile, every part of the Philippine National Flag is a symbol which represents meaning to the country. The rectangular design and equilateral triangle represents equality and fraternity. The blue stripe on top symbolizes peace, truth and justice. And red stripe then represents patriotism and valor. The eight rays of the sun symbolize the provinces which sparked the 1896 revolution. These are namely the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite and Manila. 
    However, the 1898 Proclamation Philippine Independence gave a symbolism of the flag which differed from the current one. At that time for example, the white triangle represented the crest of the Katipunan, a secret society opposing the Spaniards. The colors of the flag too represented another meaning signifying the commemoration of the American flag as a sign of gratitude for their protection of the Filipinos against the Spaniards in the Philippine Revolution. 
    The first National flag of the Philippines was sewn by Marcela Marino de Agoncillo. She was assisted by the niece of Jose Rizal Delfina Herbosa de Natividad and Marcela’s daughter Lorenza. This flag was officially displayed for war in May 28, 1898. On June 12, 1898 the flag was formally raised in Kawit, Cavite as the proclamation of independence was declared. 
    The flag’s design had gone through a phase of change. Originally, the sun on the flag had a mythical effect to it by having a face. It was a common symbol to Spanish colonies. There have also been controversies about the color of the flag because some historians argue that it was the same shade used in the flag of Cuba. It is also true that at some degrees the Cuba revolution against Spain helped shape the Philippine Revolution. The current and modern design of the flag came from the President Emilio Aguinaldo. He conceptualized the idea while he was in Hong Kong on 1897 in exile.

    In his mission to try to find a westward route to the Moluccas Islands for Spain, Ferdinand Magellan discovered Samar on March 16, 1521. The next day his ships anchored in the shores of Homonhon. The chieftains of Limasawa Rajah Kulambu and Rajah Siagu received Magellan’s arrival with hospitality. They and their queens converted into the Catholic faith and guided him to Cebu. As an honor Magellan gave them the Santo Nino as a gift and also to mark their alliance. Because of Magellan’s influence on Rajah Humabon, nearby chiefs were ordered to convert to Christianity and to supply Magellan’s ships with food. All of the chiefs complied with the order except the two Datus of Mactan of which one was Datu Lapu-Lapu who was very stern in his refusal to accept Christianity. According to the written records of Magellan’s chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, the second chief sent his son to Magellan to explain to him that he would have met the terms and orders of the King of Spain to convert and provide food had it not been for Lapu-Lapu’s disagreement.
    The Datus Rajah Humabon and Zula heard of the opposition and advised Magellan to join forces with him and the other chieftains and use power in persuading Lapu-Lapu to comply with the orders. The Captain saw this as an opportunity to strengthen his ties with the ruler and agreed to help him. Antonio Pigaffeta’s accounts in the journey narrates that Magellan made efforts to convince Lapu-Lapu to follow Rajah Humabon’s orders the night before their encounter but didn’t succeed.
    In the midnight of April 27, 1521, 70 armored men along with Magellan and the Chieftains sailed towards Mactan riding the balanguais, a type of Filipino boat, at about 20 to 30 in number and arrived hours before dawn. The captain tried a last effort in persuading Lapu-Lapu by sending one of the natives to tell him to obey the King of Spain and pay their tributes or else they will be forced to use their lances. But the reply they received was that if they had lances, Lapu-Lapu’s men had bamboos sharpened and toughened with fire. According to Pigaffeta it was part of their strategy when they asked Magellan not to attack immediately and to let the morning come so that they may have more men. He said that they said that in order to tempt them to look for Lapu-Lapu’s men because they have dug trap holes for them to fall on to while they searched.
    In April 28, Magellan set out and 50 armed men went towards Mactan. Unfortunately, the corals of the beach forced them to anchor their ship far from the shores of the island so that they had to walk in the water for a time before they got to the island. Also, because of the distance, Magellan had no choice but to leave his Howitzers behind which he intended to use on the warriors of Lapu-Lapu which ranged in an estimate of 1,000 plus men.
    The battle started when Magellan and his men neared the island. They saw that the army of Lapu-Lapu divided into three groups. When the warriors saw the foreigners, they started screaming and rushing towards them. For half an hour the Spaniards kept shooting their crossbows but to no avail. Lapu-Lapu and his men eventually came into contact with them as Magellan and his men came into the island.
    Pigaffeta wrote that Magellan meant to scare the warriors by burning their houses. Instead this provoked them more and they became furious and started attacking resulting in the death of some of his men. When a poisoned arrow hit Magellan in the right leg, he gave the order to retreat slowly but they all ran away except 8 of them including Pigaffeta who escorted the captain. Lapu-Lapu’s men targeted their legs because they had no armor in that part of their body. Magellan himself received a blow in the leg from a kampilan(a long edged Muslim sword) and a spear in the arm. He was able to kill a warrior with his lance but his injuries made him weak and was finally outnumbered and stabbed and killed by the mob all at once. It was said in Pigaffeta’s records that Magellan resisted the force in order for his men to make it safely to the boat. When they got aboard the ship they saw them behead Magellan.
Datus Humabon and Zula did not participate in the battle because of Magellan’s request for them not to. They observed from a distance and after the battle negotiated with Lapu-Lapu to return his corpse in exchange for merchandise. But Lapu-Lapu refused and up until now Magellan’s remains were never recovered. It is said that the soldiers who survived the battle of Mactan were poisoned in a feast given by Humabon resulting in the order of Juan Sebastian del Cano,successor of Magellan, to depart immediately and return to Spain in fear of Humabon’s betrayal.
    In the Philippines, Lapu-Lapu is known as the first National Hero to fight against outside forces. Whatever the accounts were, it is true that he did succeed in his refusal to acknowledge a foreign king as his ruler.

    The Blood Compact or Pacto de sangre in Spanish is a ritual that took place in the Philippines in the old times. The tribes observe this ritual for three main reasons. The blood compact is used for the acknowledgement of a friendship, recognition of a pact or a treaty and a validation to an agreement. Sometimes all three are found in the reasons for a blood compact. In the ritual the parties would slit their wrists and make the blood fall into a cup. The cup is then filled with liquid or wine and then both parties drink from it. A mutual consent is formally sealed with the act.
    The most famous blood compact in the Philippines was the Sandugo. It is a visaya word which means to have “one blood”. Sandugo took place in Bohol in 16th century between Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna who was the chief of Bohol. The blood compact also happened with Rajah Humabon and Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan. The blood compact between Legazpi and Sikatuna is the first official sign of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. It was held in March 16, 1565. The same thing was done by the Kataastaasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan of the revolution. But they did not drink each other’s blood. Instead they used the cutting of wrist as a symbol of their membership.
    The blood compact in Bohol now holds a monument in the city of Tagbilaran. It is depicted in the flag and also in the official seal of Bohol’s government. The features of the Sandugo are sketched in the symbol. On the top is the explanation of its history and the shores where the Spanish explorers anchored. 
    Sandugo goes deep into the history of Philippines. It is used to mark the official signings of mutual consent and is usually a catalyst in significant situations of the Filipinos. The people of the Philippines have been known for their great respect for the said occasion. In the year 1886 in Malacañang Palace, famous Filipino painter Antonio Luna portrayed his award-winning version of the Blood Compact. The painting featured the images of Sikatuna and Legazpi’s enactment of the Sandugo. The picture shows Legazpi accompanied by conquistadors where Sikatuna was described as crowded by these people.
    The Filipino’s passion in the preservation of their culture was evident in Antonio Luna’s Sandugo painting. It has won many awards in his time and in the modern times. The painting was awarded first prize in 1904 in Paris, France and the United States. At present the painting is placed on top of the grand staircase of the Ceremonial Hall of the Malacañang Palace.
    The performance of the blood compact is an act for mutual understanding and respect for Filipinos. The cutting of the wrist represents the willingness of both parties to cooperate and sacrifice even their blood for the treaty. Drinking each other’s blood on the other hand represents brotherhood and all the protection and love that come with it. That is how far they are going to prove to each other that they see the fusion highly and will protect it.

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    Although they have more than a hundred in number there are only three islands which have been prepared for tourism. These are namely the Governor Island, Quezon and Children's Island. But even so, one can still explore all the other islands any time. Tourists enjoy the discoveries of marine life and the fun of soft powdery sands. Aside from that, delicious spices and dishes are offered such as Pangasinan's famous shrimp paste (bagoong). The Hundred Islands is located in the Lingayen Gulf of the Philippines. It is found in the province of Alaminos, Pangasinan with an area of 1,844 hectares or 4,560 acres. During low tide the islands have a number of 124. The high tide on the other hand sinks 1 of them. They have shapes that resemble those of mushrooms due to the erosions caused by the ocean waves. They are now called the Hundred Islands National Park and is used and developed for tourists. It is also the first Natural Park established in Southeast Asia.     The islands are said to be about two million years in age. Researchers have found out that the islands are originally corals that extended from a seabed of a sea that existed in ancient times. As centuries passed, the sea-level kept decreasing until these corals were exposed. Now, it is considered to be one of the top wonders of the Philippines receiving thousands of visitors yearly. People can enjoy adventurous activities such as snorkeling and the exploration of caves. Other activities are scuba diving, kayaking and even simple pleasure hopping.     Although they have more than a hundred in number, there are only three islands which have been prepared for tourism. These are namely the Governor Island, Quezon and Children's Island. One can also explore all the other islands any time. Tourists could enjoy the discoveries of marine life and the fun of soft powdery sands. They also offer delicious spices and dishes such as Pangasinan's famous shrimp paste (bagoong).     The three most developed islands are what draws most tourists attention. Quezon Island is known to be very suitable for families and campers. It is famous for having the best beaches, dining and grilling areas. Governor's Island on the other hand is known for the Pinoy Big Brother house built on it which may also be leased per night for PHP 10,000.It is attractive for tourists who are willing to go for an adventure. Finally, Children's Island offers an option for tourists who thrive on a budget watch. It has bahaykubos, bedrooms lighted with kerosene and other simple but comfortable areas. And yet it offers an experience worth having.     Numerous wonders can be found in the Hundred Islands National Park that makes it remarkable. One of them is the Turtle Island which one would pass by from Governor's Island going to Quezon Island. The Turtle Island is famous for its shape. At one side of the island, its shape looks very similar to the shape a turtle with the trees on its tops looking like green shells on a turtle's back. It also has a rock on the front part that resembles the head of a turtle. The Caves on the other hand dazzles tourists who are aware of the theories that scientists have on them. Aside from that every cave has rich myths and legends given to them.     Because of the diversity of luxuries in nature that it offers tourists, the Hundred Islands National Park has marked its rank as one of the seven wonder of the world.  
Are you ready for the latest trend in the world of plastic surgery? Gone are the days when female celebrities and even common people rooted for Angelina Jolie’s pouty lips. A full and a duck shape lips is no longer what people would like to have right now. Well, what do people expect? A trend is something that changes over time. People gone tired of having the same appearance and now another beauty trend has been launched to the public.      The exact opposite of that pouty and kissable lips comes in which is termed as the lip reduction surgery. This is basically something which people were not ready prepared of. When having a pouty lip became a trend, lots of women complained because only few were gifted to have natural pouty lips. However with this new plastic surgery procedure, it is something beyond the normal size of thin lips.      The goal of this procedure is to create a new lip line by removing or reducing the size of the upper lip so you can have thinner and pouty lips as well. It’s like having a thin body with curves, the new statement of sexy. Sounds painful right? It is indeed painful and patients are even put into local anesthesia in order for them to bear the pain. Although the procedure only takes like 15mins to 30mins to finish, patients are advised to be under a soft diet plan for about a week or so or until the lips are free from swelling. Since it is a surgery, expect to witness sutures which could actually resemble to serial killers’ lips in movies or like the famous Frankenstein. Sutures either dissolved naturally or can be removed manually.      If you are planning to have this lip-reduction surgery you better prepare not only your lips but your pockets as well. Unlike the augmentation process or the ones to achieve fuller lips which are usually done with the help of injectable fillers, lip-reduction surgery is really expensive.  Reduction is now more expensive than augmentation, see the trend? So you better think twice or even thrice before you decide to have this procedure.      In no time several clinics specializing in plastic surgery will offer this in the Philippines, people are then advised to please consult licensed and certified cosmetic surgeons to keep you safe from the possible risk of undergoing a surgical procedure which may put your life in a great risk.   
    The biggest mall owners and developers of the Philippines is the SM Prime Holdings. They are the ones who own and developed the SM Mall of Asia which is the third largest in all of Asia. The Mall of Asia ranks as the World’s 4th largest mall having approximately 390,000 square meters by 407,101 square meters in total area. It is located near the Manila Bay and SM Central Park at Pasay City of the Philippines. With its large size come also a large number of people visiting it every day with an average of 200,000. The Mall of Asia is the Philippine’s largest mall until in 2006 when it became the 2nd after the SM City North EDSA’s redevelopment.     The Mall has a vicinity of 19.5 hectares of land with 390,194 square meters of floor area. It has four buildings with walkways interconnecting them. These building consist mainly of the parking buildings (one in the north and another at the south), the entertainment and the main mall. The latter mall then consists of shopping establishments and restaurants including the food court. The entertainment mall on the other hand is mostly made up of two-story complexes usually open-air. It is built facing the Manila Bay. Finally the north and south parking buildings are designated on the south and northern areas of the Mall. The south is located at the Department Store while the North at the SM Hypermarket. Each building has 2,500 parking spaces. Visitors of the Mall of Asia are welcomed by a large globe made of framed steel with an LED display of a Globamaze.     The mall consists of branches of stores which are mostly found in other SM Malls.Aside from that MOA also has 4 other theaters of various kinds. The Director’s Club Theater is used for intimate screenings. The Premiere and CenterStage Cinemas on the other hand is utilized to facilitate live concerts and theatricals. But the San Miguel-Coca-Cola IMAX theatre is the biggest theater in the Mall and is also considered one of the tops in the world.     Another one of the attractions that MOA has is its large skating rink which has an Olympic size of 60x30 meters. Visitors could also enroll at training programs for figure skating and hockey. In 2007 SkateAsia competitions was held at the MOA which was a first in the history of Philippines to host an international event. Aside from these competitions the music hall beside the sea has also hosted singing competitions and concerts.     The Mall of Asia has so many features coming along with its great size. What makes it unique from other malls is that it has a tram which could accommodate 20 people. It also has a Ferry Terminal which saves tourists an hour of time going to Cavite. Other famous attraction of the mall is the SM by the Bay beside the sea (which used to be a place called the Baywalk), the SMX Convention Center (largest in the Philippines) and the MOA Asia Arena which is located at the MOA complex.
    Vintas are traditional boats originating from the southern island called Mindanao in the Philippines. The Bajau and Moros of Sulu and Zamboanga created these boats. They are also called lepa-lepa or sakayan and were used since ancient times to transport people and goods to and from different islands. In those times the Bajaus and people from Basilan and Tawi-tawi used these boats as their homes. It was said that they seldom went to land except for the task of burying their dead. This is also why they became known as great swimmers and people with great knowledge of the sea and oceans. The Vintas are also used in regattas. Regattas are a series of races between rowboats such as the vintas.     They were made from dug-out canoes and installed with double outriggers. But the most remarkable traits of these boats are the colorful patterns of its sails. Although each boat has a variety of colors, every one of them follows a certain vertical pattern. Each color is separated from the other in a vertical fashion. The colors used in every line represent the culture and the past of the Muslims. It is because of these vessels that Zamboanga is famous for.     Originally, Vinta was the term used for a Moro dance. This was a celebration reminiscing the time when Filipinos migrated to the archipelago. The dance was performed with moves imitating the movements of the boats. The dancers would do this by standing on top of poles and balancing themselves as though they were Vintas sailing in the Ocean.      The Vinta basically signifies the general evolution of Sulu towards development. It is the island’s symbol as the maneuvering of the craft requires careful steering because of stormy waters. The people of Sulu were believed to have used these boats in the past in search of their promised land. They believed that this land was given to them as inheritance from their forefathers.     Vinta represents a lot to the people and it has many uses in terms of tourism and foreign attraction. It has become a great icon for Filipinos and some institutions in the Philippines. The PAREF schools, for example has used the Vinta as a symbol to their buildings. In other places such as the picturesque Paseo del Mar the Vintas are used as one of their additional attractions. It was the Department of Tourism with the support of the City Government which has recently launched the “Vinta Sailing at Paseo”. This official launching is one of the country’s efforts to promote the culture of Zamboanga City. In this effort the colorful vintas are used both to attract tourists and also to create programs that will preserve the culture.     With a low price of P50, visitors can now enjoy a 30-minute tour around the Paseo del Mar riding the vintas. This is available every Saturday and Sunday with at least 5 boats ready to for a tourist to ride on. Tourists can also observe regattas during the Fiesta Pilar.      The Vinta is a representation of Zamboanga’s history and culture. But it is also one of the symbols that represent the Philippines as it signifies migration and the colorful traditions of the country.
    Having only six years of life span, the organization of La Solidaridad has accomplished lots because of the contributions of its prominent members. These people with their trivial pen names are namely Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce and Jose Maria Panganiban. The Pen names they used were Laong Laan (after a railway station) by Rizal, Plaridel by del Pilar, Taga-llog by Luna, Tikbalang by Mariano Ponce and Jomapa by Panganiban.     All of the members had one thing in common and that is that they were all liberals who were exiled in the year 1872. The La Solidaridad were also composed of students who attended universities in Europe. Their aim was to increase the awareness of the Spanish on the necessities of its colony in the Philippines. They also aimed to propagate smoother relationships between the Philippines and the Spanish if not closer. The La Solidaridad is a Spanish word which meant in English as the Solidarity. It was created on the 13th of December 1888 in Spain.      The organization was led by Galicano Apacible who was Jose Rizal’s cousin. La Solidaridad once issued a paper which had the same name. It was published on the 15th of February in 1889 at Barcelona, Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena was the first editor of that paper and was later replaced by Marcelo H. del Pilar. The paper of La Solidaridad focused on nationalistic topics such as the political, cultural, social and economic conditions of a country specifically the Philippines and Spain. It contains articles and essays written by each prominent writer. Aside from that the paper also published articles concerning news and current events which are local and also foreign. They also included speeches coming from prominent leaders of Spain and which talked about the condition of the Philippines.     Aside from the first five mentioned, the other known members of La Solidaridad were Robert Lacamra, Jumar lim, Jose Alejandrino, Eduardo de Lete, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Maria Regidor and Pedro Paterno. They also consisted of members which were foreign. The international members are the Austrian ethnologist Professor Blumentritt and Spanish Historian Dr. Miguel Sagrario.     The history of La Solidaridad take its roots back from the initial goals and aspirations of the Propaganda Movement. The Propaganda Movement in the past were looking for ways and venues to express their desires of the Philippines and Spain attaining a successful assimilation. They all then agreed that by creating the La Solidaridad they would be more effective in their mission and so it was established. The organization published their issues every after a week. It started its first publish in February 15, 1889. The La Solidaridad stood as one of the systems that helped the movement propagate for six years.     The Comite de Propaganda was the core provider and funder of the La Solidaridad. The editorship position was first offered to Jose Rizal which he declined. His reason was that it was due to his being so busy in the annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas by Antonio de Morga on London. From 1889 up to 1895 the La Solidaridad kept publishing. But after six years they ran out of funds to support their activities and on November 15, 1895, it officially ceased its publication with a farewell note from Marcelo del Pilar.

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People come in all shapes and sizes, even down to our faces. The right frame for the right face shape can dramatically change your whole look. How will you know what your face shape is? Easy! Just go in front of a mirror and use an erasable marker to trace the outline of your reflection.       There are 7 basic face shapes, each having different features that would help you narrow down on your choice. It’s all about balance. Find frames that are opposite to your face shape, frames that don’t accentuate your shape but help enhance it. Here are a few tips to remember:     a.    Oval – Lucky you! They say this is the best shape to work on because of its natural symmetry and balance. You can literally wear any style with ease and confidence. TRY: Any Style & Wide frames. Play around with different frames that will suit your personality. Just aim for a frame width that’s just enough to match the widest part of your face. AVOID: Too Small or Short frames.     b.    Round – Most people with round faces tend to look cute and youthful, with its proportional width and length, full cheeks and a soft chin line and forehead. TRY: Small, Square, Angular frames. Always go for opposite shapes so as not to exaggerate your face shape but help give balance. Rectangular frames can make your face appear longer and thinner. AVOID: Rimless, Circular Glasses.     c.    Square – With a strong jaw, broad forehead, proportional in width and length, this type of face is highly fashionable as you can experiment with round frames like the legendary Harry Potter. TRY: Soft, Oval or Circular Frames. These help soften the angles of your face. Also, glasses that can sit on the bridge of your nose will help lengthen it. AVOID: Boxy Frames.     d.    Diamond – narrow forehead and jaw line, with wide or high cheekbones; you’re like the opposite of the round face. TRY: Rimless, Cat-eye or Oval Glasses. Round frames help soften the angles and contour of your face. Plus you get to play around with cat-eyes as they sweep up your face and help emphasize the assets of your face like the cheekbones.  AVOID: Boxy, Wide Frames. Best stay away from frames that could widen your cheeks more.     e.    Oblong – More like an elongated version of the oval. Your face would be longer than it is wide. TRY: Round or Square, Oversized Wide Frames. Like the oval, you can still rock almost any style you want! But make sure that they’re wider than your face and give it more depth. Low-bridged ones can help shorten your nose. AVOID:     Too Small or Short.     f.    Rectangular – The length of an oblong but with a strong hot-looking jaw line. TRY: Curvy, Oval Glasses, Oversized Wide Frames. The wider they are, the more flattering. AVOID: Rectangle Glasses.     g.    Heart (Base-up) or Triangle (Base-down) – This shape can either have a wide forehead but cute and delicate jaw or the opposite. TRY: Rimless Glasses (for hearts), Cat-eyes (for triangles). You’d look beautiful in thin, light-metal or clear plastic frames as these help balance your forehead. Cat eyes also help sweep it up for triangles. AVOID: Bold, Over-embellished frames.  
   Ever heard of the quote, “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper”? Though most of us would think it’s just an easy quote to remind us how we should eat everyday but strange enough, this proverb actually has scientific proof backing it up, especially the breakfast part. It’s not called “breakfast” for nothing; it essentially means you’re breaking the fast that you went through when you’ve gone to sleep. It’s what wakes your body up, significantly comprises a great portion of your day’s energy supply, nutrient intake, concentration and performance, and overall mood. Basically, your breakfast can make or break you for the rest of the day.       As they say, “you are what you eat”; this applies especially during the first meal of the day. That said; don’t eat breakfast just for the sake of eating breakfast. What you eat is also the most crucial part to remember. You’re better off NOT eating breakfast at all compared to eating an unhealthy one. So if you’re going to eat, eat a healthy breakfast compared to those common sugary ones (like doughnuts, pancakes, waffles, muffins, even fruit juices). Eating these may be easier and tempting as they give you that highly sought after jolt of energy, but that sudden spike will just as easily drop down and leave you tired, cranky and even hungrier than before. Why is that, you may ask? Food high in sugar and low in protein are easily digested. In fact, you could actually control your appetite if you eat first thing in the morning.      Studies have shown breakfast eaters are leaner and gain less weight compared to their non-breakfast-eating counterpart. This is because your hunger will dramatically curb for the rest of the day. You thought skipping those few calories in the morning is going to help you? Guess again. People set themselves up to eat more at lunch and throughout the day, and inevitably make bad food choices, if they choose to skip their first meal. As I’ll tell you, time and time again, breakfast is THE deal-breaker.     A well-balanced breakfast is comprised of the right combination of good carbs, fiber and protein. Good thing, you have a lot of options, like oat meals, eggs paired with good fruits like bananas, grapefruits, etc., wheat-infused meals, vegetables and berries. Watermelons are also a great way to rehydrate early in the morning. The internet is swarming with terrific ideas to help you expand your horizon. No matter what your option is, never ever miss out again on the most important chow time in your day.  
    Water: The one element planet Earth has that sets it apart from all the other planets in our system. This is also the reason why only our planet is able to sustain life, its surface covered with 71 percent water. The human body itself is roughly made up of 60% water; essentially more than half of our being is H2O, which is why it is so vital for us to keep hydrated. A person can survive up to a proverbial 40 days without food, but would be a goner in a week’s time without water.      The question is how much water is enough on a daily basis? Most people have grown up using the 8x8 rule, or in layman’s term, drinking eight (ounce) glasses of water per day, which would be half a gallon or about 2 liters. The funny thing is there’s not much evidence to back this myth up except it’s just easy to remember. In reality, you have to note that the actual amount depends on a lot of factors like age, weight, gender, how physically active you are, the weather, etc.     Studies have shown that the average adult male will need 3.7 liters of fluids per day, while females need 2.7 liters. Children and teens would be: 1 liter (5 glasses) for 5-8 year olds, 1.5 liters (7 glasses) for 9-12 year olds, and 2 liters (8 to 10 glasses) for 13+ years.      Another good question to ask is how can you tell if you’re drinking enough water? Simple: check your urine. If you’re not drinking enough, your urine will look yellowish or have an orange color. The best indication is when it has a clear or pale yellow color. Soft bowel movements are a good sign too.     Note that you don’t really have to wait feeling thirsty to drink. Your body is constantly using up water and thirst is your body’s way of telling you that you’re becoming dehydrated. The good thing is all forms of fluid you take in counts. This includes milk, juice, tea, and even coffee, though water is still the best. Fruits and vegetables are a great source too. That said, don’t drink while you’re taking a meal or munching on snacks. It can be tempting but doing so may cause bloating and indigestion, as the water will counteract with the digesting enzymes your body is producing. The best time to drink would be 15-30 minutes prior or after a meal.     No matter how busy you get, don’t ever forget to refill, no matter what the means. Keep a water bottle handy to remind you. Never underestimate a simple glass of water to charge up for the whole day. A healthier you is a better you.  
Communication is one of the key things that give our lives meaning in our stay here on Earth. With the advent of technology, the Internet we know today has been a very vital tool for this. Originally, in the 1950’s, the Internet was made for the military: to use computers in defeating the Soviet Union and its allies by an army networked together. Because of the immobility of computers back then, scientists were prompted to create a wireless network capable of linking to other networks of computers miles and miles away. And poof! It became the Internet! Forty years later, it may not have served its intended purpose back then, but like an invisible army, this same Internet has now conquered the entire globe and has kept on growing and innovating. It’s no wonder people are inevitably evolving with it as well.     Whether you’re a digital native or just learning the ropes, here’s a quick guide to the latest trends of some of the most popular apps known to man as of 2017:  1.    Facebook  With over 1 billion downloads up to this date, with its users on a constant love-hate relationship because of its constant update, Facebook has been here for 13 years, starting from 2004, and was founded by Mark Zuckerberg and colleagues. It is one of today’s leading social media apps where you can connect with friends and family, share photos and videos, and express yourself. Here’s the latest: •    Augmented Reality – AR is technology which combines virtual reality with our reality as it overlays digital text and objects on to the real world. Mark has just recently announced that they are developing augmented-reality (AR) glasses. •    In-App (AR) Camera Filters – Partly, one of the reasons why they have integrated new camera filters into the app is to help people get familiar and ease in the transition of this new tech. But the most part is that it’s just fun! This feature is jam-packed with effects like masks, frames and all sorts of stuff you can apply to your photos or videos.   2.    Instagram Also with a whopping 1 billion downloads, Instagram is now 7 years old. Created by Kevin Systrom for iOS in 2010 (and released an Android version in 2012), Instagram is a pretty straightforward app. As its namesake, you “instantly” share photos and videos publicly or privately. Here are its newest deals: •    New Direct – disappearing photos and videos will now appear alongside text messages and shared posts; in other words, your permanent and temporary shares can now be seen in one seamless thread, turning it into beautiful visual conversations. Simple as it is, the dev’s really took their time to make this a thing. •    Carousel Posts - in other words, Multiple Image Posts, which will allow you to make Insta-posts slide-showing up to 10 images/videos. It’s like posting a moving album!   3.    Snapchat Originally, Snapchat was first named “Picaboo” (cute, right?) as the intent was to make an app that will allow  “disappearing posts” or pictures and messages that are only available for a short amount of time and will auto-delete itself. I bet James Bond would love this app. Let’s take a look at what’s new with our little ghost: •    Snapchat Search – The search bar is now practically everywhere! On the chat and camera screen, and on Stories; this way it’ll be easier to find your contacts or even make new ones. •    Bitmoji Takeover – is your own personal emoji or avatar, and much like the search bar, Bitmoji is now all over the place… in chat, profile, and in search results. •    Global Snapchat Story – Story now goes global! You get to post and see stories from all around the world even if you’re not there where the Story was held.   4.    Twitter  Ever heard of that line, “A little bird told me”? I’m guessing that’s where Twitter got its inspiration for its phenomenal “tweets”, messages that only consist of 140 characters. Here you can get the latest scoops from news to entertainment and politics, you name it. Here are some of its latest updates:   •    Twitter Lite – a fast data-friendly version of this app for those who have slow connections, making it more accessible to all kinds of people. Plus, they’ve added a new Data Saver Mode to further cut down on the mobile data used. Through this mode, you only get a preview of images and videos and you simply click which ones you want to fully load.   •    Safety Upgrades – Twitter has been working overtime to ensure their consumers’ safety and privacy. The team addressed several issues on cyber-abuse, like identifying abusive content and stopping the creation of new abusive accounts, collapsing potentially abusive or low-quality tweets, etc. They also introduced a “safe search” where you can filter Tweets that may contain sensitive contents and Tweets from accounts you’ve blocked or muted.
Nowadays people can be deceived easily by what they can see in the internet. Some people just couldn’t comprehend that not all being posted online are true. Being popular is now equivalent to being an internet sensation. Lately, a new product innovation has been launched to the public and became really popular in no time. Once a product comes with amazing videos it will surely caught the attention of the people, not to mention the likes and shares that actually contribute to its popularity.     But how sure are you that what you saw and just shared in your account is actually true and legit? Let me introduce to you “Ooho” or the edible water which has gained millions of views all over the world through social media. People were greatly amazed of the concept of an edible water container as people are now very much conscious with the environment and nature.     It is absolutely a great idea however it is actually a bit unrealistic. Its goal is to replace the use of plastic bottles and save the environment. However It can never replace the traditional use of bottles. It can only be limited to gulp sizes. The container is edible which means you can ingest it right away, or slowly sip from it and consume the entire thing. Thus, you cannot have it in more than 500ml, and absolutely not in 1liter. So you have the usual sizes instead, but how are you going to secure it inside your bag? Or how long can you actually hold to it before you became thirsty again? And one more thing, how can you share it with someone else? Sharing your drink isn’t a question of being hygienic it is all about being convenient to its consumers.      Aside from being impractical, care also to check on its packaging. The company just defeats its purpose of getting rid or plastics and non-biodegradable materials, since Ooho comes in a plastic packaging, so actually it’s just the same thing. It’s a complete lie. Although the concept is really great but the means of delivering it isn’t the best option right now. Maybe they can collaborate with other companies creating biodegradable materials for its packaging.      The hype for Ooho is undeniably high right now, but people should try to educate themselves a lot more and check if it’s really something worth the amazement of if they are just being deceived with what they just saw.